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Smokers With Lung Cancer Could Quit and Double Survival

January 2010

LONDON (AP) - People with early lung cancer who quit smoking could double their chances of surviving, a new study says.


Until now, there has been little proof that quitting smoking after developing lung cancer makes any difference to survival.

British Study

British researchers analyzed previous data from 10 studies examining how long smokers survived after being diagnosed with lung cancer.

People with lung cancer who continued smoking had a 29 to 33% chance of surviving 5 years. But those who kicked the habit had a 63 to 70% chance of being alive after 5 years. The research was published Friday in the BMJ, formerly known as the British Medical Journal.

Lung cancer is the top cancer worldwide, and the prognosis is usually poor. Only about 7% of patients make it to five years, though about 20% of patients are diagnosed early enough to be treated.

Never Give Up

"The message is you should never give up on giving up (smoking)," said Amanda Parsons, of the U.K. Centre for Tobacco Control Studies at the University of Birmingham, who led the study. "Even at the stage where you have been diagnosed with early stage lung cancer... if you give up smoking, your body can still partially recover and your risk is reduced," she said.

While some doctors recommend lung cancer patients quit smoking, not all do. Some doctors and nurses 'think it is inhuman to dwell on the matter - that it adds to feelings of guilt and takes away a lifelong comfort from the dying patient', wrote Tom Treasure of University College London and Janet Treasure of King's College London in an accompanying editorial in the BMJ.

They said patients and their families should now be told about the study results, 'because the potential benefit is great'.

Clues

The research might also provide some clues on how smoking causes cancer. Scientists are not sure if tobacco smoke or nicotine affect lung cancer once it has developed, though there is some evidence they may speed up the disease. Knowing how cigarettes impact cancer could potentially lead to new treatments, Parsons and colleagues wrote.

The study was paid for by the British Heart Foundation, Cancer Research U.K. and other governmental bodies.




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More info on LUNG CANCER here.






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Delima Hindar Kanser Payudara

Januari 2010

Jus buah delima mungkin menjadi penting pada masa akan datang kerana ia sebenarnya boleh digunakan dalam rawatan kanser payudara. Kajian makmal perubatan banyak menunjukkan hasil positif apabila menggunakan buah yang kaya dengan antioksida itu.


Lebih daripada 75% kes kanser payudara dirawat dengan estrogen dan terdapat 400,000 wanita di seluruh dunia meninggal dunia akibat kanser ini.

Kajian

Kajian yang dibuat di Universiti Ohio State menumpukan manfaat jus delima untuk menentang kanser payudara.

Mereka mendapati jus delima mengandungi kandungan kimia yang dinamakan asid ellagik, yang mampu melambat malah mengekang pertumbuhan sel kanser dalam tisu payudara.

Selain tinggi nilai antioksida, delima juga bagus untuk jantung. Satu lagi kajian di Pusat Penyelidikan Pencegahan Kanser di Amerika Syarikat sedang meneliti kesan kandungan delima terhadap kanser payudara dan aromatase, iaitu enzim yang memainkan peranan penting dalam penghasilan estrogen dan juga menggalakkan pertumbuhan barah payu dara.


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Segalanya Tentang Insomnia


Kebanyakan orang pernah sekali-sekala mengalami masalah sukar untuk tidur. Ia merupakan satu perkara biasa dan mungkin tidak di anggap sebagai satu masalah kesihatan. Janganlah berasa risau sekiranya anda mengalami kesukaran untuk tidur pada ketika tertentu dalam kehidupan anda.

Insomnia ialah merasa sukar untuk tidur atau merasa seperti tidak cukup rehat walaupun telah tidur secukupnya. Maka pesakit yang menghidap insomnia ialah mereka yang merasakan tidak cukup tidur/tidak dapat tidur nyenyak di malam hari dan kurang aktif/bertenaga di siang hari.

Tanda tidur yang mencukupi ialah apabila anda bangun di pagi hari dan merasa bertenaga dan telah berehat secukupnya. Sebanyak mana tidur yang anda perlukan bergantung kepada individu dan mungkin hanya 4 jam semalam atau mungkin sehingga 10 jam.

Fisiologi tidur berubah apabila umur seseorang semakin meningkat. Tempoh tidur di kalangan warga tua adalah lebih pendek berbanding mereka yang pertengahan umur. Tidur mereka menjadi kurang nyenyak dan lebih kerap terjaga di waktu malam. Warga tua mungkin akan lebih banyak tidur di waktu siang. Kanak-kanak biasanya memerlukan tidur yang lebih banyak berbanding dengan orang dewasa.

Jadi bolehlah dikatakan bahawa insomnia bukanlah masalah berapa jam seseorang itu tidur, tetapi setakat mana tidur itu merehatkan diri.

Pengkelasan Insomnia

Insomnia boleh dikelaskan kepada insomnia sementara, jangka pendek atau kronik bergantung kepada berapa lama tidur itu terganggu.

Insomnia Sementara

Ianya bergantung kepada keadaan dan biasanya disebabkan oleh perubahan persekitaran atau tekanan hidup seperti mengembara, dimasukkan ke hospital atau menjangkakan bahawa sesuatu peristiwa yang penting atau yang menimbulkan tekanan kepada diri anda akan berlaku. Ia biasanya tidak melarat kepada gangguan yang lebih serius dan akan hilang dalam masa beberapa hari.

Insomnia Jangka Pendek

Jika lebih banyak tekanan yang datang (contohnya kematian seseorang yang disayangi, dibuang kerja atau berlaku penceraian), insomnia sementara mungkin melarat menjadi insomnia jangka pendek dan biasanya insomnia jenis ini akan berlarutan tidak lebih daripada 3 minggu.

Insomnia Kronik

Jika insomnia jangka pendek tidak dikendalikan dengan baik, ia mungkin melarat menjadi insomnia kronik yang biasanya berlarutan dari beberapa bulan hingga beberapa tahun. Ia selalunya disebabkan oleh keresahan umum, pengambilan ubat-ubatan, masalah kesihatan, gangguan fisiologi atau penyalahgunaan bahan seperti alkohol atau dadah. Oleh yang demikian, adalah amat kritikal untuk mengenalpasti punca insomnia jangka panjang jika gangguan tidur ini hendak dikendalikan dengan baik.

Tanda-tanda dan Gejala Insomnia

* Sukar untuk tidur, berbaring dalam keadaan jaga lebih daripada sejam atau lebih sebelum dapat melelapkan mata.
* Tidur yang tidak nyenyak dan sering terganggu, contohnya terjaga beberapa kali di waktu malam.
* Terbangun di awal pagi kemudian sukar untuk menyambung tidur semula.
* Terasa letih atau mengantuk di waktu siang menyebabkan kerap tidur di siang hari.

Faktor-faktor Insomnia

1. Faktor gaya hidup

Sikap dan ubat-ubatan boleh menyebabkan berlakunya insomnia atau memburukkan lagi masalah tidur yang dialami. Tabiat meminum alkohol, minuman yang mengandungi kafein dan merokok merupakan antara contoh utama. Faktor gaya hidup lain yang boleh menurunkan kualiti tidur ialah seperti waktu tidur yang berbeza-beza setiap malam, pertukaran masa kerja, perjalanan jauh dan berpindah ke rumah baru. Beberapa ubat-ubatan seperti antidepresan dan antihipertensi boleh menyebabkan insomnia menjadi semakin teruk.

2. Tekanan hidup yang semakin bertambah sama ada di rumah atau di tempat kerja

3. Masalah-masalah kesihatan

Penyakit yang boleh menyebabkan rasa sakit (contoh : angina pektoris, artritis, kanser, ulser peptik/refluks saluran gastrousus), masalah pernafasan (contoh : asma, bronkitis, penyakit penyumbatan pulmonari kronik, kegagalan jantung kongestif) atau kerap terasa ingin membuang air kecil (contoh : penyakit kencing manis). Masalah-masalah kesihatan lain yang boleh menyumbang kepada kesukaran untuk tidur ialah hipertioidisme, penyakit Parkinson dan masalah buah pinggang yang tidak berfungsi dengan baik.

4. Masalah psikiatri

Kemurungan, gangguan keresahan, skizofrenia, gangguan bipolar, penyalahgunaan bahan seperti dadah dan ubat-ubatan boleh menyebabkan insomnia.

5. Persekitaran tidur yang tidak selesa

Persekitaran yang bising seperti bunyi lalu lintas, kapalterbang, atau bunyi televisyen jiran boleh menyebabkan tidur terganggu. Bilik yang terlampau terang, suhu bilik yang terlampau sejuk/panas dan bantal atau katil yang terlalu lembut atau keras juga boleh mengganggu tidur.

Bagaimana Mengatasi Insomnia

Elakkan :

* Meminum minuman yang mengandungi kafein (seperti kopi,teh, minuman kola) dan alkohol, merokok atau mengunyah tembakau 2 hingga 4 jam sebelum tidur, bergantung kepada bagaimana ia boleh mempengaruhi kemampuan anda untuk tidur
* Tidur dengan perut yang kosong atau terlalu penuh
* Membawa perselisihan atau masalah ke tempat tidur jikalau ia boleh diselesaikan sebelum itu
* Memaksa diri untuk tidur dan merasa risau mengenainya
* Tidur sekejap-sekejap pada waktu siang

Bersenam secara konsisten 3 hingga 5 kali seminggu. Walau bagaimanapun, senaman berat sebelum tidur mungkin menyebabkan anda sukar tidur.

Berehat sebelum tidur. Berhenti daripada membuat kerja beberapa jam sebelum tidur. Belajar cara-cara menenangkan diri dan mengosongkan fikiran daripada kerja atau masalah. Ini kerana apabila fikiran anda terlalu aktif, anda akan menghadapi masalah untuk berehat.

Pastikan persekitaran tidur anda selesa dengan cara mengurangkan gangguan luaran seperti cahaya lampu dan kebisingan. Tidur di atas tilam yang selesa, bantal yang lembut atau memakai pakaian tidur yang longgar.

Tidur hanya apabila anda rasa mengantuk dan gunakan tempat tidur anda untuk tidur sahaja bukannya sebagai pejabat atau tempat menonton televisyen.

Jika anda berbaring dalam keadaan jaga melebihi daripada 15 minit, keluar dari bilik tidur dan cuba lakukan sesuatu yang menyenangkan dan merehatkan anda.

Lakukan aktiviti-aktiviti yang merehatkan sebagai amalan sebelum masuk tidur untuk menimbulkan rasa mengantuk seperti :

* Mandi air suam
* Minum susu suam
* Membaca buku yang membosankan atau bahan bacaan ringan seperti majalah
* Mendengar muzik yang menenangkan

Bangun pagi pada waktu yang lebih kurang sama tanpa mengambil kira waktu anda tidur.

Semak semula preskripsi dan ubat-ubatan yang anda beli dengan pegawai farmasi untuk mengelakkan dari terambil ubat-ubatan yang menyumbang kepada masalah tidur.

Bila Anda Perlu Berjumpa Doktor

Anda mungkin memerlukan rawatan perubatan jika masalah untuk tidur berlarutan atau mula mengganggu kerja/aktiviti harian anda terutamanya apabila anda menderita insomnia kronik (yang berterusan untuk jangka masa panjang) yang berkait dengan penyakit. Doktor akan memeriksa kesihatan anda secara keseluruhan dan bertanya tentang tabiat tidur anda yang biasa. Anda mungkin diberikan pil tidur atau dirujuk kepada pakar sakit jiwa.

Jangan mengambil pil tidur tanpa nasihat doktor. Pil-pil tidur paling baik digunakan untuk menghilangkan masalah tidur yang sementara pada waktu-waktu tertentu sahaja. Penggunaan untuk jangka masa panjang boleh membawa kepada ketergantungan kepada ubat apabila badan mula menyesuaikan diri dengan pil-pil ini. Ini bermakna anda mesti mengambil lebih pil tidur untuk mencapai kesan yang diingini.


Lagi info tentang INSOMNIA di sini.






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FAQ on Curved Spines (Scoliosis)

by Dr. Y.L.M

My little girl was born normal, but when she turned 7, she suddenly developed a curved spine. I am very worried. Will she grow out of it?

The term for an abnormal or exaggerated sideways curvature of the spine is called scoliosis. Your normal spine usually has curves when you are looking at it from the side.




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But if you look at the skeleton from the back, the spine should not have any curves and should appear straight. Scoliosis is what happens when the spine curves sideways, and the bones then twist upon each other like a corkscrew. This is to be differentiated from kyphosis (hunchback), where the spine is abnormally bent forward, more than usual. If the spine is abnormally bent backward, this is called lordosis.

As to whether your girl will grow out of it remains very subjective, but it is highly unlikely. The basic rule is – the more growth the patient has remaining, the more likely the scoliosis will get worse.

At 7, your little girl has still quite a lot of growing up to do.


But is scoliosis common in children? At so young an age?

Scoliosis can actually occur at any age, but it is more common in people over 10 years old. It is twice as common in girls than boys.

If your child is below 3 years old and develops scoliosis, this is called infantile idiopathic scoliosis.

If your child is between 3 and 10 years of age when she first develops scoliosis, this is called juvenile idiopathic scoliosis. If your child is over 10 years of age, this is called adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

What does idiopathic mean?

It means the cause is unknown or uncertain. But scoliosis is known to be hereditary. If you have scoliosis, your children are also more likely to have scoliosis.

It is just that if you have mild scoliosis, there is no guarantee that your child – if she develops scoliosis – will also have mild scoliosis. The severity of scoliosis can not be predicted from generation to generation.


But there are types of scoliosis where the cause is known. These include :

* Functional scoliosis – your spine is normal, but because you have a disorder somewhere else in the body, such as if one of your legs is shorter than the other, or if you have muscle spasms in your back, your spine then curves abnormally to compensate for it.

* Neuromuscular scoliosis – this severe type of scoliosis develops before birth, when the bones are starting to form in the foetus. It is usually associated with other birth defects like cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, and Marfan's disease. If the scoliosis is present when your baby is born, then it is termed congenital.

* Degenerative scoliosis – this one occurs in older adults, due to arthritis. When you get older, some of your ligaments and muscles around the spine weaken and can no longer hold your spine in its posture.

My little girl says her scoliosis does not hurt her. But some of her schoolmates are laughing at her. Will her scoliosis begin to hurt her in the near future?

Most cases of scoliosis do not cause pain, and the only complaint is the abnormal curvature of your spine, which can cause your head to appear tilted, or one of your hips or shoulders to be higher than the other. Sometimes, it is so mild that everyone does not notice it until subtle things like not fitting into your school uniform begin to surface.

Severe scoliosis, however, can cause problems for your rib cage. Your lungs and heart may not be able to function properly and you may have breathing difficulties.

Some types of scoliosis can cause back pain.


Can scoliosis be treated?

Definitely. The treatment of scoliosis varies from type to type and severity. The treatment of idiopathic scoliosis, such as the type your child is likely to have, is based on the age when it develops.

Your child is 7 years old, so she is likely to have juvenile idiopathic scoliosis, which unfortunately has the highest risk of getting worse (compared with all the idiopathic types of scoliosis).

If your child's abnormal curvature is not too severe, we can try bracing first. There are also many types of braces. Some braces need to be worn 24 hours a day and are removed only when you bathe.

Some braces are worn only at night. Braces do not correct the scoliosis, but they can help slow down the curvature.

Now, if your child's curve stays below 40 degrees until she has finished growing, it is not likely to get worse when she is an adult. But if the curve is greater than 40 degrees, it is likely to get worse, and one day, she will be at risk of heart and lung problems.

If bracing fails, surgical intervention is needed. Certain parts of bones might need to be removed or the spine might have to be fused.

It is difficult and you will not be able to bend normally for the rest of your life, but at least you will be able to breathe properly and have as normal a life as possible.

Other types of scoliosis, like functional scoliosis, can be corrected by addressing the root cause, such as a shortened leg.


More info on CURVED SPINE here.






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Cacar Air (Chicken Pox)


Cacar air juga dikenali sebagai jintungan atau bertih (mengikut dialek daerah). Ia disebabkan oleh virus Varicella (kumpulan virus herpes) dan amat mudah berjangkit. Ia berlaku pada semua peringkat umur, biasanya pada kanak-kanak. Ia lebih teruk sekiranya berlaku kepada orang dewasa. Penyebaran adalah melalui sentuhan atau titisan cecair daripada orang dijangkiti. Penyebaran juga berlaku melalui bahan tercemar dengan cairan cacar seperti pada pakaian atau tuala dari penghidap cacar air.


Pengidap cacar air boleh merebakkan virus sehingga 48 jam sebelum ruam timbul dan boleh terus menjangkitkan orang lain sehingga cacar air menjadi kering dan berkeruping. Kayap (herpes zoster) ialah infeksi dari virus yang sama dan berlaku pada masa hadapan (umur dewasa).


Tanda dan Gejala

Pengidap cacar air akan mengalami demam dengan bintik-bintik merah pada kulit. Kawasan bintik-bintik merah melibatkan muka, kepala, dada, belakang dan akhirnya seluruh tubuh. Ruam cacar air akan timbul kurang dari 2 minggu selepas jangkitan berlaku.

Bintik-bintik merah yang baru akan mula timbul dalam beberapa hari dan bilangan boleh mencecah ratusan biji dan kemudian membentuk gelembung berisi air. Bila gelembung berisi air pecah ia menjadi kering dan berkeruping. Rasa gatal sederhana atau teruk menyebabkan pesakit akan menggaru dan akhirnya menyebabkan parut.

Gejala lain ialah sakit perut, tiada selera makan, sakit kepala, rasa tidak selesa, letih dan terganggu. Penghidap juga ada batuk ringan, hidung berair 2 hari sebelum bintik-bintik merah timbul.



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Komplikasi

Ruam atau cacar air akan berkurangan dalam jangka masa 2 minggu dan biasanya tiada komplikasi. Adakala penyakit boleh jadi teruk walaupun pada kanak-kanak yang sihat dan mengakibatkan komplikasi teruk termasuklah kematian. Kumpulan berisiko untuk jangkitan serta mendapat komplikasi teruk:

* Bayi baru lahir, yang mana ibu tidak penah mengidap cacar air atau pelalian cacar air
* Ibu mengandung menyebabkan kesan pada bayi dalam kandungan seperti tak cukup berat dan kecacatan anggota boleh berlaku. Sekiranya ibu mengidap cacar air seminggu sebelum kelahiran, ia boleh menyebabkan jangkitan serius serta membahayakan nyawa pada bayi
* Orang yang lemah atau kurang daya tahan akibat penyakit lain seperti HIV, barah sumsum tulang (leukemia) dan pesakit kanser dalam rawatan kemoterapi. Orang yang mengambil steroid berpanjangan pesakit asma dan sindrom nefrotik
* Penghidap sakit radangan kulit (inflammation eczema)

Komplikasi akibat cacar air :

* Jangkitan kulit - menjadi lebam merah, bengkak dan sakit
* Dehidrasi akibat muntah berterusan atau tidak minum air. Tanda dehidrasi ialah kurang kencing, mulut kering dan dahaga
* Kerosakan otak akibat keradangan otak. Tanda-tanda radang otak ialah sakit kepala teruk, keliru, mudah marah, leher keras dan belakang mengeras serta tidak sedarkan diri
* Radang sendi - sendi menjadi sakit, kejang dan bengkak
* Jangkitan paru-paru (pneumonia)- tanda-tanda seperti batuk, susah bernafas, pernafasan berbunyi (wheezing) dan sakit dada.

Rawatan

Ubatan anti-viral

Acyclovir atau immuno globulin diguna untuk merawat cacar air. Rawatan amat berkesan sekiranya diambil segera dalam tempoh 24 jam dijangkiti. Ia akan mengurangkan keterukan dan komplikasi akibat cacar air. Semua orang dewasa mendapat kebaikan dari rawatan antiviral pada peringkat awal penyakit terutamanya mereka yang kurang sistem daya tahan (orang lanjut usia, pesakit diabetes, pengidap HIV/AIDS serta rawatan steroid).


Rawatan antibiotik

Komplikasi akibat cacar air seperti radangan kulit dan radangan paru-paru memerlukan rawatan antibiotik. Pesakit yang mendapat radang otak hendaklah dimasukkan ke hospital untuk rawatan antivirus.

Rawatan di rumah

* Sapu losyen calamine
* Ubatan antihistamin kurangkan gatal-gatal
* Panadol untuk demam

Pencegahan

Pelalian memberi ketahanan sepanjang hayat, diberi pada umur 12-18 bulan. Pemberian pelalian di bawah umur 13 tahun sebanyak 1 dos, manakala selepas umur 13 tahun ialah sebanyak 2 dos (selang masa 4 - 8 minggu antara dos 1 dengan dos 2). Pelalian aktif diberi kepada kanak-kanak berisiko (antara 1 - 5 tahun) sekiranya ahli keluarga ada cacar air.



Lagi info tentang CACAR AIR :

Care for Chicken Pox
Do Away With Chicken Pox






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Food Intolerance


by Dr. Amir Hamzah Abdul Latiff

Several hours after a delightful dinner, your child begins having abdominal pains and severe diarrhoea. As the tears stream down your child's face, you start to panic. Is your child suffering from a food allergy?


Before you jump to any conclusions, take a step back. While the prevalence of food allergy has increased dramatically in many countries over the years, especially among children, food intolerance still remains a much more common problem.

Food intolerance is generally less severe than food allergy. In fact, almost everyone at one time or another has had an unpleasant reaction to something they ate.



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While food intolerance may not be life threatening, it is a cause of concern for growing children as it may limit their access to certain important nutrients that are essential to their development.

Ask a Clinical Allergist

If you suspect your child is suffering from either food allergy or food intolerance, seek professional help to help you differentiate between the two.

While there are many 'DIY' testing kits/methods in the market claiming to be able to diagnose food allergies and food intolerance, a clinical allergist is still the best-qualified professional to diagnose either condition.

What is Food Intolerance?

Food intolerance refers to the adverse reaction(s) that people have to certain foods or ingredients that they consume. These reactions may range from simple bouts of burping, to a case of full-blown diarrhoea that occurs every time the food is eaten, especially if in large quantities.

Food intolerance happens when something in a food irritates a person's digestive system or when a person is unable to properly breakdown the food. Thus, food intolerance is actually a digestive system response.

How do I Know if it is Food Intolerance?

As food intolerance is a digestive system response, most of the symptoms are also associated with digestive health problems. Watch out if your child experiences unpleasant symptoms such as :

* frequent burping
* nausea
* vomiting
* bloating
* abdominal pain
* diarrhoea

These symptoms may develop quickly - within minutes of food consumption - or take up to a few days to manifest. Usually, they will worsen as they develop.

Watch out!

If your child develops symptoms such as skin reactions and breathing difficulties, bring him to the doctor immediately as your child may be suffering from a food allergy. Food allergies are immune system responses that should not be taken lightly as they can elicit a sudden and fatal reaction.

How Food Intolerance Occurs

Food intolerance can be caused by a few factors. The most common is a lack of enzymes that are needed to digest certain foods.

Enzymes are proteins produced by our bodies to break down food that we consume. When there is a lack or inadequate amount of a specific enzyme, some food may remain undigested and in larger components in the small intestines.

As a result, the level of fluid and salts in the large intestines increases. This helps the naturally occurring bacteria in our large intestine to ferment the undigested food into acids. This may cause symptoms of food intolerance such as bloating and abdominal pains.

Apart from that, food intolerance may also be a result of the chemical ingredients that are added to some food to enhance their taste and provide colour. As these ingredients are not naturally occurring, the body, especially the child's body, may not be able to tolerate them.

It is important to be aware that it may not be a particular food itself, but the ingredients it contains that are causing the symptoms.

Parents, Take Note!

Food intolerance can begin at any age and it may run in families. Though you may not be able to control how and when it manifests, you can definitely play a big role in reducing your child's risk of experiencing food intolerance.

Breast milk is best

Breastfeed your child exclusively for as long as possible, especially in the first 6 months of his life. This works well as primary prevention for food intolerance as well as food allergy.

Not only is breast milk considered the most nutritious source of food for your child, it is dense with antioxidants that will boost Bifidus bacteria (Bifidobacteria) in the gut, keeping the intestinal lining healthy. Additionally, breast milk also contains fewer foreign proteins that will irritate your child's digestive system. So feeding your child breast milk lowers the chance of you feeding your child something that his body may not be able to tolerate.

Cook healthy

Eating out increases your child's risk of suffering from food intolerance, as you may not be aware of the additives or ingredients that are being used. Instead of eating out, make it a habit to cook your own meals for your child. Not only will you be able to control the ingredients used, you will be able to ensure that your child receives a wholesome and nutritious diet.

While preparing meals, always remember to check the food labels and ingredients for suspected triggers.

Watch the quantity

If you have figured out the specific food(s) that trigger your child's food intolerance, the next best step would be to avoid serving it. However, certain foods are needed for growth and it would not be wise to eliminate these completely. If your child is intolerant to such a food, try serving it in a much smaller amount, but more frequently.

Food intolerance can be very difficult to deal with as different people may develop different reactions. If your child has food intolerance, be aware of the food that goes into his mouth, whether you do or do not know if it may cause a bad reaction. Learn to identify the risk factors and ways of managing it early in your child's life, rather than trying to treat them later.


More info on FOOD INTOLERANCE here.






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FAQ Tentang Bayi Demam

Demam ialah satu cara badan kita melawan jangkitan. Makrofaj iaitu sel 'pembersih' dalam badan kita sentiasa dalam keadaan berkawal. Apabila mereka menemui sesuatu yang asing – seperti virus, bakteria atau fungus – mereka akan membersihkannya sebanyak yang mungkin. Pada masa yang sama, mereka akan meminta bantuan, memberi isyarat kepada otak untuk meningkatkan suhu badan. Haba akan secara langsung membunuh beberapa jenis bakteria. Ini juga akan meningkatkan penghasilan sel darah putih dan bahan kimia yang membunuh kuman.




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Bayi selalunya akan demam selepas menerima imunisasi. Demam juga boleh diikuti dengan selsema, sakit tekak, jangkitan telinga, penyakit respiratori (seperti pneumonia, krup, penyakit virus dan jangkitan saluran urinari.

Apakah suhu badan yang normal bagi seorang bayi?

Demam merupakan suhu badan yang melebihi suhu normal badan. Suhu badan normal pada bayi yang sihat adalah 36.5 darjah Celcius sehingga 37.8 darjah Celcius. Bayi mempunyai suhu yang lebih tinggi daripada kanak-kanak yang lebih besar. Sebab itu jika anda perasan, bayi kebiasaanya akan mempunyai badan yang panas. Secara amnya, bayi tidak dianggap demam kecuali suhunya melebihi 37.7 darjah Celcius pada waktu pagi atau melebihi 38.2 darjah Celcius pada waktu petang.


Bagaimana saya boleh tahu sama ada demam bayi saya ini serius atau tidak?

Apa yang lebih penting untuk diperhatikan adalah bukan suhu badannya sahaja tetapi kelakuan bayi itu sendiri. Sekiranya suhu badan bayi tersebut meningkat kepada 38.9 darjah celcius tetapi dia aktif, masih mempunyai selera makan dan menyusu dengan baik maka tidaklah perlu dirisaukan sangat. Tetapi jika suhu badannya hanya 38.2 darjah celcius dan dia tidak aktif, tidak ada selera makan, meragam dan sukar untuk ditenangkan maka bawalah bayi untuk pemeriksaan lanjut.

Jika suhu anak anda meningkat secara tiba-tiba, menyebabkannya menjadi pucat, kejang, bergerak menggerenyet tidak terkawal dan mungkin tidak sedarkan diri, dia sedang mengalami serangan yang disebabkan oleh demam, yang dikenali sebagai kekejangan febril. Ini amat menakutkan apabila dilihat tetapi ia jarang membahayakan bayi. Walaupun ia kelihatan berpanjangan, serangan ini selalunya berterusan hanya selama 20 saat dan jarang berlaku lebih dari 2 minit. Jika serangan berlaku lebih dari 4 minit, hubungi ambulans untuk membawa anak anda ke bahagian Kemalangan dan Kecemasan dengan segera atau bawa bayi anda ke hospital.

Semasa anak anda mengalami serangan, jangan kekang bayi anda dengan apa-apa cara sekali pun. Longgarkan mana-mana pakaian yang ketat dan keluarkan sebarang benda dari mulutnya seperti puting atau makanan. Hubungi doktor anda apabila serangan sudah reda.

Bagaimana saya boleh mengesan demam?

Ibu bapa selalunya boleh tahu jika anak mereka demam dengan menyentuh atau mencium dahinya (kajian menunjukkan metod ini tepat sebanyak 75%). Gunakan termometer untuk mendapatkan bacaan yang lebih tepat. Jangan gunakan termometer oral (mulut) sehingga anak anda berusia 3 tahun.

Jika bayi anda masih terlalu kecil untuk anda menggunakan termometer oral, bacaan suhu boleh diambil dari ketiaknya jika dia demam. Pegang hujung bebuli termometer di ketiak bayi dengan sikunya rapat ke sisi selama lebih kurang 5 minit (termometer digital terbaru akan berbunyi bip apabila suhu telah diambil). Bacaan ketiak akan memberikan bacaan satu atau dua darjah lebih rendah daripada bacaan internal, jadi tingkatkan bacaan yang diambil.

Termometer telinga adalah cepat dan tepat untuk mengambil suhu anak anda tetapi harganya mahal dan memerlukan tangan yang stabil untuk mendapatkan bacaan tepat. Anda juga boleh menggunakan jalur demam yang anda letakkan pada dahi anak anda dan walaupun bacaannya kurang tepat, ia mudah digunakan ke atas bayi yang sedang beronta-ronta.

Apa yang boleh saya lakukan untuk merawat demam bayi saya?

Anda tidak perlu merawat demam kecuali anak anda berasa tidak selesa atau jika dia pernah mengalami kekejangan febril. Berikut adalah langkah-langkah merawat demam :

* Jika anak anda demam dan berusia lebih daripada 8 minggu, anda boleh berikannya Panadol yang khasnya untuk bayi dan kanak-kanak, untuk menurunkan suhunya. Ikuti arahan dos pengambilan dengan berhati-hati. Dos yang tepat bagi ibuprofen (Nurofen) juga boleh diberikan. Parasetamol dan ibuprofen tidak disarankan kepada bayi di bawah usia 2 bulan dan jangan berikan aspirin kepada bayi atau anak anda yang berusia di bawah 16 tahun yang dikaitkan dengan Sindrom Reye's, penyakit yang sebenarnya jarang berlaku tetapi boleh membawa kematian.

* Pakaikan bayi anda baju kain kapas yang nipis (jangan balut bayi anda untuk mengurangkan demam).

* Pastikan biliknya sejuk. Jika perlu, letakkan kipas berhampiran kot bayi dan gunakan sehelai cadar atau selimut nipis untuk menyelimutkannya.

* Berikan banyak cecair. Bayi kecil memerlukan lebih banyak air daripada biasa, iaitu susu badan atau susu formula . Jika anda sudah memberikan minuman lain kepada bayi anda, berikan lollipop ais, sup jernih atau jus buah-buahan telah yang dicairkan.

* Cuba mandian berspan. Letakkan bayi anda dalam tub mandi yang cetek dengan air yang suam dan gosokkan badannya, satu bahagian pada satu masa, dengan kain flanel atau span yang diperah sedikit. Jangan keringkan badan bayi anda - biarkan air tersejat sendiri. Ini mungkin membuatnya lebih selesa.

* Jangan letakkan bayi anda di atas katil sahaja. Walau pun dia tidak boleh terlalu aktif, aktiviti sederhana adalah baik.

* Jangan biarkan anak anda kelaparan - bayi yang sakit memerlukan banyak kalori dan cecair.

Jangan risau sangat. Sesetengah bayi mungkin demam dan berkelakuan seperti biasa. Bayi yang lain akan meragam sedikit tetapi dengan jagaan yang baik, bayi anda akan kembali sihat semula dengan segera.


Lagi info tentang DEMAM di sini.






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Vitamins History

Datuk Dr. Rajen M.

A vitamin is a substance which the body cannot synthesise on its own, yet it is necessary for life. Therefore, by definition, it is necessary to obtain all vitamins from outside the body. If a molecule can be synthesised in the body, it is not a vitamin. The single exception to this rule is vitamin D can be synthesised in the skin but only when exposed to sunlight.


Though, our early journey into the history of vitamins started almost 3500 years ago, when the ancient Egyptians discovered that night blindness could be treated with certain foods. Nothing much has happened since.



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1747 - Vitamin C Discovered

One of the major milestone in nutritional medicine occurred in 1747, when Scottish surgeon James Lind discovered an unknown nutrient that we today call Vitamin C.

He found that scurvy, a widely reported disease characterised by spontaneous bleeding, loose teeth, aching joints and lack of energy, could be prevented by taking citrus foods.

Unfortunately, his discovery was largely ignored, and over the next 40 years, thousands of people died from scurvy.

In the 1860s, Louis Pasteur discovered that microscopic organisms caused many diseases. His discoveries prompted further research into the curative and preventative properties of vitamins.

In 1880 Christian Eijkman produced vitamin-deficiency conditions in animals on an experimental basis and then reversed the condition with an appropriate feeding regimen.

1905 - Kuala Lumpur Experiment

In Kuala Lumpur, the discoveries of which vitamins are present in food, and what effects those vitamins have upon human health, developed in about 1905 when an English doctor, William Fletcher, experimented on asylum inmates in Kuala Lumpur.

He showed that nearly 25% of those who received polished rice developed beriberi, while less than 2% of the 123 patients who received unpolished rice fell victim to beriberi. This disease was common in the rice cultures of Asia.

Beriberi is characterised by weakness in the legs, hands and arms. Later, weakening of the cardiac muscles leads to heart failure.

Frederick Hopkin's said in 1906 that foods contain a small amount of 'growth factors' needed to sustain growth and life itself. The general category of 'vitamins' was defined as substances found to be absolutely necessary for life.

1912 - Origin of the Word 'Vitamin'

In 1912, while working at the famed Lister Institute in London, Polish-born biochemist Casimir Funk took Fletcher's thinking a few steps further.

Funk isolated the active substances in rice husks of the unpolished rice that were preventing beriberi. He named these missing dietary links 'vitamines' (vital amines) in the belief that they were 'amines' which were compounds derived from 'ammonia'.

Funk's original term 'vitamine' was changed to "vitamin" when many scientists identified, purified and synthesized all of the vitamins and discovered they did not all contain nitrogen.

Late 1920s - Vitamin K Discovered

Vitamin K and its wonderful blood clotting properties were discovered in the late 1920s by the Dane Henrik Dam, who would win a Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine in 1943.

In that year also, the same prize was awarded to American Edward Doisy, for taking Henrik Dam's discovery and increasing the understanding of how it worked chemically.

1933 - Vitamin A Discovered

In 1913, attention turned to finding and isolating the vitamins themselves. Thomas Osborne and Lafayette Mendel showed in rat experiments conducted at Yale University that butter contained a growth-promoting factor necessary for development.

Soon known as fat-soluble Vitamin A, its chemical character was established in 1933, and it was synthesized in 1947.

1936 - Vitamin B Discovered

Other vitamin discoveries came along in the early 20th century. Cow's milk was found to contain another growth-promoting factor, the water-soluble Vitamin B, which was isolated in pure form in 1936. (We now know there are several different types of Vitamin B.)


1922 - Vitamin D Discovered

In 1922, while looking for a solution to the problem of rickets, Edward Mellanby discovered Vitamin D. In the United States, the enrichment of milk with Vitamin D was extremely effective against rickets.

Experiments with rats in 1922 showed that rats reared exclusively on whole milk grew normally but were sterile and could not reproduce.

Herbert Evans and Katherine Bishop, at the University of California, showed that the missing factor was abundant in green leaves and wheat germ. The fat-soluble Vitamin E had been discovered.

In the early 16th century, observations that citrus fruits could prevent scurvy on long sea voyages later led Harriet Chick of the Lister Institute to begin a series of painstaking investigations during the 1930s into the qualities of various foods.

1932 - Synthesized Vitamin

Meanwhile, in 1932, Albert Szent-Gyorgyi isolated a substance from the adrenal glands. He called it hexuronic acid. At the same time, W.A. Waugh and Charles King isolated a vitamin from a lemon and showed it was identical to hexuronic acid.

In 1932, this vitamin became the first to be synthesized in a laboratory. It was Vitamin C.

Of course, the two time Nobel laureate, Linus Pauling, made major waves when he suggested high dose vitamin therapy against all disease, including cancer. This proposal remains controversial.

Commercial

By the 1930s, vitamin sales were already making huge profits for pharmaceutical companies.

In the 1930s a flurry of scientific discovery demonstrated the biochemical functions of the vitamins and established the body's requirements for them. From then on, they have been commercially produced.

Research

Since 1955 and up to the present, research into the functions of vitamins has shown that some go beyond the simple prevention of deficiency diseases.

For example, niacin in pharmacological doses can lower blood cholesterol levels. Many vitamins have roles as co-enzymes and in regulation of gene expression.

Letters in Vitamins

Vitamins were given letters to go with their chemical names to simplify discussion about them. Not many people know what to say about 'd-alpha tocopheryl succinate' but most people have some idea of what 'vitamin E' is all about.

When the 'B' names were being handed out, several substances were given 'B' names, which turned out not to be vitamins after all. Therefore, you have heard of vitamins B1, B2, B3, B5, B6 and B12 but not 4, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11. Those latter substances lie in the scrap heap of nutritional history.

Fat and Water Soluble

There are 13 vitamins in all, divided into the four fat soluble (A, D, E and K) and the nine water soluble (eight B vitamins and vitamin C).

The fat soluble vitamins can be stored in the body and do not need to be ingested every day. Because they can be stored, it is possible to store too much and thus become toxic on these vitamins.

The water soluble vitamins cannot be stored, with the exceptions of B12 and folic acid and must be consumed frequently for optimal health. However, these vitamins can be taken in large amounts without toxicity, because they are not stored and are easily eliminated.


More info on VITAMINS here.






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Ulser Mulut Boleh Menyebabkan Barah

Kebanyakan daripada kita mesti pernah menghidap ulser. Ia boleh dialami oleh sesiapa sahaja tanpa mengira umur dan jantina tetapi golongon wanita mungkin lebih berisiko kerap menghidapinya terutamanya bagi wanita yang mengandung dan datang haid. Ulser ini biasanya akan pulih dengan sendirinya dan kalau berulang pun tidaklah serius dan juga tidak berjangkit kepada sesiapa di sekeliling.




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Ulser ini terjadi adalah kerana jangkitan bakteria di dalam mulut dan selain itu ia juga adalah disebabkan oleh kecederaan fizikal pesakit seperti tergigit bibir, pipi atau tercucuk benda yang tajam. Ulser juga terjadi akibat kekurangan zat makanan, tekanan, kurang rehat atau keadaan mulut yang kotor.

Ulser ialah tompokan putih di dalam mulut. Ia mungkin luka atau kudis yang terdapat di bahagian mulut iaitu di bahagian pipi, mulut dan lidah. Bagi yang pernah menghidap penyakit ini tentunya tahu betapa sakitnya untuk menguyah makanan kerana rasa perit dan sakit bila makanan terkena luka ulser tadi.

Tanda-tanda Ulser

Tanda-tanda anda sedang menghidap ulser mulut :

* Kawasan yang terkena jangkitan atau cedera bewarna merah dan membengkak
* Rasa pedih dan sakit di bahagian yang luka terutama apabila anda sedang menguyah makanan pedas, masin atau panas
* Rasa sakit apabila anda sedang mengosok gigi dan susah untuk membuka mulut
* Hilang selera makan akibat pedih dan sakit di bahagian luka


Langkah Pencegahan

Langkah-langkah awal perlu diambil untuk mencegah/menyembuhkan ulser :

* Minum air yang secukupnya dan kurangkan air yang berasid
* Jauhi makanan yang banyak mengandungi rempah
* Letakkan sedikit ais di tempat luka untuk melegakan sakit
* Elakkan daripada tekanan perasaan

Jika ulser mulut anda masih tidak sembuh malah semakin merebak dalam masa kurang dari 3 minggu, anda mesti segera berjumpa doktor kerana mungkin ulser mulut yang lambat sembuh adalah tanda-tanda awal anda sedang menghidap barah mulut. Pemeriksaan lanjut perlu dilakukan apabila ulser yang dialami agak besar saiz dari biasa iaitu lebih 2 mm, ulser berdarah dan tidak sembuh dalam masa 3 minggu.



Lagi info tentang BARAH MULUT :

Barah Mulut
Gambar Barah Mulut Akibat Merokok






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Long Term Effect of Caesarean Section

by Dr. Nor Ashikin

My sister-in-law chose to have a Caesarean section to deliver both her children because she could not endure the pain of natural childbirth. She is now pregnant with her third child and planning to have another Caesarean section. What are the long-term effects of another C-section?


Why the growing popularity of Caesarean deliveries? Convenience may be one reason : with Caesarean section (C-section), a woman — and her obstetrician — can choose the time of childbirth and preserve a 'virginal vagina'. Safety could be another reason.



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Women who have C-section deliveries, can have a normal vaginal delivery with later pregnancies, depending on the type of C-section performed and the reasons for it.

Many women who attempt a vaginal birth after a Caesarean (VBAC) delivery are successful. However, there is a small risk of uterine rupture associated with VBAC attempts, which can endanger the mother and the baby.

In the case of your sister-in-law after 2 previous C-sections, the obvious and safest mode of delivery is another C-section, as the risk of uterine rupture is higher if she were to deliver vaginally.

As for long-term effects, with all types of abdominal surgery, a C-sections is associated with risks of post-operative adhesions, incisional hernias (which may require surgical correction) and wound infections. Other risks include severe blood loss (which may require a blood transfusion).

Lately, studies have implied that the chances of later urinary or fecal incontinence are greater in women who have passed a baby through their birth canal, indicating C-sections may be wise now that everyone's living into her 70s and 80s and even beyond. This is still controversial, but there is enough evidence to make this an important consideration.

Recently, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, sent out a technical bulletin (an official pronouncement) that maternal choice C-sections are not unethical, making them a legitimate option. Many people feel that if a woman has a right to terminate her pregnancy, she should also have a right to decide how her baby should be born.


More info on CAESAREAN SECTION here.






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Khasiat Betik


Betik (Carica papaya) ialah tumbuhan semula jadi tropika Amerika. Buah betik berbentuk bujur yang agak panjang hingga ke bentuk yang hampir bulat. Kulit buah betik yang masak berwarna kuning cerah hinggalah kuning pekat. Isinya pula berwarna kuning, oren hingga ke warna merah cerah atau merah. Isi betik rasanya manis, dan aromanya seharum kasturi.




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Betik kaya dengan vitamin A, vitamin C dan juga kalium. Selain itu terdapat kalsium, besi, tiamin, riboflavin dan niasin dalam betik. Jumlah kalorinya sangat rendah. Kesemua nutrien yang terdapat di dalam sebiji buah betik dapat membantu mengurangkan risiko kanser, penyakit jantung dan strok.

Cara yang terbaik untuk menikmati buah betik yang menyegarkan ini adalah dengan cara memotongnya kepada dua, buangkan biji hitamnya dan potong memanjang.


Lagi info tentang BETIK di sini.






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FAQ on Amnesia

by DR Y.L.M.

My cousin was recently involved in a car crash. She sustained a head injury and, when she woke up, she had no memory of the crash itself. The doctors tell me this is amnesia. What does amnesia mean?


Amnesia is defined as a profound memory loss that is usually caused by an injury to your brain. There are two main types of amnesia - anterograde and retrograde.



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Anterograde Amnesia

In anterograde amnesia, you cannot remember recent information – such as the events of your crash. Your short term memory goes away, so even when you are lying on the hospital bed, you cannot remember anything that is happening to you after a few moments.

You cannot remember what you had for breakfast after you have eaten it, and you cannot remember who just visited you. When you go home, you cannot hold on to a job any longer because you cannot remember where you put that spreadsheet just moments ago, or what you were even supposed to do with it in the first place.

This type of amnesia is usually caused by damage to the hippocampus, fornix, and mamillary bodies – the areas of your brain that form new memories. But you will remember events from long ago, such as prior to your crash and what you did last week, and most certainly your name.

Retrograde Amnesia

Wait, this is the famous type of amnesia they like to write about in movies, right? Like The Bourne Identity, where the hero cannot remember his name or who he was?

Yes. But those are very severe cases the movies like to play up! Most retrograde amnesia is not that severe. It is the opposite of anterograde amnesia.

Here, you will be able to remember the events of your crash (or any trauma) clearly, but not the events before it. You usually lose all memory of the events just before the crash, but your long-term memory (such as your name and where you work) is likely to be safe.

This one is usually caused by damage to the areas of your brain used in storing old memories, namely your temporal lobes and hippocampus.

In rare, unfortunate cases, both anterograde and retrograde amnesia can exist in the same patient.

Is a brain injury due to a car crash or blow to your head the only cause of amnesia?

No. Anything that affects your brain can cause amnesia. Physical injury, infections, drugs, alcohol abuse, degeneration due to dementia, strokes affecting the memory areas of your brain, even severe emotional stress, can all lead to some form of memory loss.

What other types of amnesia are there?

The other types are categorised more by their cause than their nature.

Traumatic amnesia, as its name implies, is caused usually by a blow to the head. This one is usually transient. It can be accompanied by a brief loss of consciousness. How long the amnesia lasts is actually dependent on how severe the brain injury is. The more severe, the worse the amnesia is.

Transient global amnesia combines severe anterograde amnesia (inability to form new memories) and milder retrograde amnesia (you still retain most of your past memories, though you can not remember anything that happened in the past few hours).

This one, again as its name implies, is only temporary and is caused by blood vessel disease in the brain. It happens more commonly in older people.

Wernicke-Korsakoff's psychosis is an amnesia caused by prolonged alcohol use. This one tends to get worse and is accompanied by other symptoms such as in-coordination and loss of feeling in the fingers and toes.

Hysterical amnesia is the type caused by a very traumatic emotional event (stress) that you cannot handle, eg watching the murder of a loved one, a violent rape. Your memory usually returns within a few days, though you may never fully remember the events of the trauma itself.

Infantile/childhood amnesia occurs when you cannot recall the memories from your early childhood. It is believed that some of the areas of your brain linked to memory were not fully mature at childhood.

Can amnesia be treated?

Amnesia has to be treated according to its root cause. For example, if your amnesia is caused by brain trauma, recovery or even surgery is the rule.

If your amnesia is caused by alcohol abuse, then by any means, you have to stay away from alcohol. If your amnesia is caused by a severe emotional stress, then psychotherapy and group therapy can help you recover emotionally.

For the amnesia itself, if you are stuck with it, the best you can do is cope. It can be very difficult for someone to cope with anterograde amnesia, but it helps if the sufferer writes down a daily schedule so that he does not forget where he is and what he is supposed to do at that hour.

For retrograde amnesia, it is very difficult to recover lost memories.


More info on AMNESIA here.






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Ujian Pap Smear Elak Kanser Pangkal Rahim (Serviks)


Siapa yang patut melakukan pap smear?

Wanita yang sudah melalui hubungan seksual terdedah dengan risiko kanser pangkal rahim (serviks). Hubungan kelamin yang pertama sahaja sudah cukup menjadikan permukaan pangkal rahim terdedah dengan virus dan kuman.

Pada permukaan pangkal rahim terdapat 'transformation zone yang diselaputi sel awal yang sensitif. Sel ini boleh berubah menjadi sel kanser jika terdapat tekanan daripada virus dan kuman.

Dalam masa 2 atau 3 hari ujian, keputusan sama ada pesakit dijangkiti atau tidak kuman virus papiloma akan dapat dikesan. Virus papiloma atau dipanggil juga virus ketuat adalah penyebab utama pro kanser. Jika virus ini sudah mencapai 80%, pesakit berisiko tinggi untuk mendapat kanser pangkal rahim.

Tidak ada had umur tertentu bagi pengidap kanser pangkal rahim. Gadis yang sudah aktif dalam hubungan seksual dan baru berusia 16 tahun mungkin boleh mengidapnya.

Siapakah mereka yang paling berisiko tinggi?

Semua wanita yang pernah melakukan seks adalah berisiko untuk dijangkiti kuman pada pangkal rahim. Tetapi yang paling berisiko tinggi dan digalakkan supaya melakukan pap smear dengan segera ialah:

* Wanita berusia muda yang sudah terdedah dengan hubungan seks.
* Mereka yang kerap bertukar pasangan.
* Mereka yang tidak menjaga kebersihan faraj sehingga mudah dijangkiti sebarang kuman.

Berapa kali ujian diperlukan?

Syor daripada kedoktoran Amerika Syarikat menggalakkan supaya wanita yang pernah melakukan seks menjalani ujian pap smear sekurang-kurangnya setahun sekali atau mengikut nasihat doktor. Wanita yang sering melakukan hubungan seks khususnya para isteri, disarankan 1 atau 2 tahun sekali. Mereka yang melebihi usia 40 tahun disyorkan setahun sekali.

Ujian pap smear tidak akan dilakukan dalam jarak waktu yang kerap kerana kadar pengesanan tidak ketara. Malah hasil ujian juga tidak akan dapat memberikan jawapan yang tepat.

Disyorkan, pada peringkat awal (pertama) melakukan seks, terus melakukan ujian pap smear kerana dikhuatiri pasangan telah dijangkiti kuman atau virus.

Adakah ujian pap smear tepat?

Ujian pap smear memang tepat dan tidak pernah salah dalam memberikan jawapan. Oleh itu mereka yang sudah dikesan dijangkiti kuman, diwajibkan membuat ujian pap smear seterusnya atas nasihat doktor.

Kedudukan pesakit ketika menjalani ujian boleh mempengaruhi keputusan. Teknik pengambilan kulit pada permukaan pangkal rahim yang tidak tepat boleh menyebabkan kesukaran untuk mendapatkan keputusan.

Kedudukan pesakit yang disarankan ketika menjalani ujian ialah berdepan (seperti dalam proses bersalin) atau cara mengiring. Tetapi kedudukan berdepan lebih disarankan kerana ini memudahkan proses ujian.

Apa yang saya perlu lakukan sebelum ujian?

Persediaan wanita sebelum ke klinik untuk melakukan ujian:

* Digalakkan datang selepas haid kering atau dalam peringkat pertengahan pusingan haid.

* Tidak boleh bersama (melakukan seks) dua hari sebelum berjumpa doktor kerana ditakuti ciri-ciri yang dikesan mempengaruhi keputusan.


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