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Ruam Panas


Satu lagi penyakit yang sangat sinonim dengan cuaca panas. Ia terjadi akibat pendedahan kepada suhu yang panas secara berterusan. Juga disebut miliaria. Masalah seperti urtikaria (gatal-gatal) dan tidak berpeluh juga termasuk sebagai ruam panas.


Biasa berlaku ketika musim panas terutama jika kelembapan tinggi. Keadaan ini boleh berlanjutan berhari-hari jika tidak dirawat dan memerlukan rawatan profesional andai peringkat serius.

Jenis-jenis Ruam Panas

* Jernih (miliaria kristalina)
* Putih/kuning (miliaria pustulosa)
* Merah (miliaria rubra)
* Dalam (miliaria profunda)



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Risiko Ruam Panas

Semua orang terdedah kepada ruam panas. Namun mereka yang lebih terdedah kepada masalah ini adalah :

# bayi
# kanak-kanak berumur di bawah 4 tahun
# atlet atau individu yang berkerja di kawasan panas atau terik matahari
# obesiti
# pesakit yang sukar bergerak (bed ridden)
# individu yang kurang atau tidak berpeluh secara kongenital (keturunan)
# pekerja ketenteraan


Punca Ruam Panas

Berlaku apabila liang peluh dan bulu roma pada permukaan kulit tersumbat. Kelenjar peluh dengan peluh yang terperangkap menyebabkan muncul benjolan kecil yang mengandungi air pada kawasan kulit.

Peluh manusia mengandungi garam yang tinggi, sangat berpotensi menyebabkan iritasi kulit dan ruam panas. Kerana itu pentingnya membasuh peluh dengan air dan sabun.

Simptom

Ruam panas biasanya muncul dalam bentuk benjolan kecil dalam jumlah yang banyak di bahagian folikel bulu roma. Di sesetengah kawasan, ia mungkin berwarna merah atau merah jambu.

Lebih teruk, ruam panas boleh menyebabkan iritasi teruk dan muncul tompok-tompok merah lebih besar dan gatal-gatal. Sesetengah individu mengalami ruam panas sangat gatal dan sesetengah pula tiada kesan tertentu.

Kawasan yang sering terjadi ruam panas adalah muka, leher, belakang, abdomen, kemaluan, di bawah dada, lipatan siku dan punggung.


Rawatan Profesional

Kebanyakan kes ruam panas pulih dengan sendiri tanpa rawatan doktor. Ruam panas yang berpanjangan perlu didiagnos melalui karakter kulit dan sejarah ruam sebelum ini. Ruam yang teruk memerlukan ujian mikroskopik atau biopsi kulit. Lain-lain ujian yang perlu dilakukan adalah untuk memastikan sama ada jangkitan bakteria, ekzema atau jangkitan kulat.

Penjagaan Sendiri di Rumah

Kebanyakan ruam panas boleh pulih tanpa rawatan. Sesetengah kes pulih sehari selepas bertukar kepada kawasan yang lebih sejuk.


Langkah untuk penjagaan ruam panas :

1. Basuh kawasan ruam dengan sabun lembut. Kemudian bilas dengan air dan keringkan dengan tuala. Basuh beberapa kali setiap hari terutama selepas bersenam atau bersukan, berjalan jauh atau terdedah kepada matahari.

2. Duduk di kawasan yang sejuk (di bawah bumbung dan biarkan kulit bebas bernafas).

3. Mandi atau berendam dalam air sejuk.

4. Rehat dalam kawasan berpendingin hawa (21 hingga 22oC) sebagai terapeutik. Jika tiada alat pendingin hawa di rumah, boleh keluar bersiar-siar di kawasan mempunyai pendingin hawa.

5. Elakkan sentuhan kulit ke kulit di kawasan lipatan seperti bawah dada dan abdomen dengan meletakkan kain kapas atau material menyerap peluh.

6. Letak pek sejuk di kawasan yang mengalami ruam panas (jangan letak melebihi 20 minit dalam satu jam).

7. Gunakan ubat niacin.


Cara Mengelak Ruam Panas

* Pakai pakaian menyerap peluh seperti kapas.

* Elakkan penggunaan fabrik nylon dan poliester.

* Pastikan bayi berada dalam keadaan selesa dan kering. Periksa lampin mereka dan tukar lebih kerap kerana bayi lebih mudah terkena ruam lampin.

* Air liur bayi yang meleleh mengundang penyumbatan folikel liang roma menyebabkan ruam panas.

* Individu yang terlantar sakit di katil perlu bergerak untuk mengelakkan peluh berterusan di kawasan yang sama.

Faktor Yang Memburukkan Ruam Panas

# Kelembapan tinggi

# Suhu tinggi

# Aktiviti jakuzi, sauna dan bilik stim.

# Demam

# Selaran matahari (sunburn)

# Berpeluh kerap atau hiperhidrosis

# Pakaian yang ketat dan fabrik tidak mesra pengaliran udara


Lagi info tentang RUAM PANAS di sini.






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The Importance of Family Mealtimes


by Dr. Goh Chee Leong

Mealtimes are a special time for you and your young child. It may be the only time of the day when your family comes together. At other times, parents may be occupied with work or household responsibilities, while children are away at school. However busy we all are, we nevertheless need to eat.




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Thus, having meals with your family provides an amazing opportunity for you and your spouse to spend time together with your child. Eating together enables you to foster your child's development, coach, and monitor your child’s behaviour, and enjoy each other's company.

The benefits of eating together as a family are endless! Skipping this activity will cause your child to lose out on these precious opportunities to develop as a person.

Tested and Proven

Family mealtimes have been the subject of considerable scholarly studies. Researchers from various fields, from the field of nutrition to the field of psychology, have conducted extensive research on the outcomes of family mealtimes. Each study has consistently showed that the positive effects of dining together as a family extend far beyond what we assume. Some of these include:
Better nutrition

Children who eat with their families have lower rates of both malnutrition and obesity compared to children who do not.

Research has shown that a higher frequency of family meals is associated with increased consumption of fruits, vegetables, and other essential nutrients, and lower intake of fried food and soft drinks.

Additionally, dining together with parents allows children to observe the positive nutritional habits that their parents adopt, leading children to make healthier food choices when not dining with their parents.

Enhanced family connectedness

You are more likely to pass on family values and traditions to your child during regular mealtimes. In fact, the social relationships developed while sharing a meal will reinforce your child's sense of belonging to the family. This helps build a strong, healthy, and resilient family unit.


Better social and communication skills

Eating with adults allows your child to observe the behaviour of others in a social setting and to practice social skills. Participation in table conversations also enables him to acquire a wider vocabulary and acquire general knowledge. In fact, it has been suggested that it is these skills that enable children who have frequent family meals to, reportedly, perform much better in school.

Protection against risk behaviours

The US Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse (CASA) found in their 10-year study that teens who have frequent family meals are less likely to smoke, drink, and use drugs. This is not surprising, as the level of family and adult support that is built from having family meals serves as a great buffer against such risk-taking behaviours.

As a parent, you can shape the culture of the home. So make it a point to have regular family mealtimes. Encourage every member of the family to sit together at the dinner table. Research shows that while the numbers of families who have meals together remain high at 80%, that number in bigger cities is dropping quickly.

The Quality Factor

Just because the whole family is eating together does not mean that you are eating right. Getting the family together is just half the battle. How you conduct these family dinners are just as important.

You may be sitting together, but if everyone is silent, you and your family are no better off than if you were all doing your own thing. Quality is the key. Make family meals count instead of treating them as something you feel obligated to do because experts recommend you do so.

Here are some tips on how you can make your family meals worth the time and effort :

1. Don’t rush them

Treasure each moment that your family spends together at the table. There is no point in making all the effort to sit down with your family, only to have it fly by. Allow ample time to enjoy the food and each other's company. Avoid the temptation of rushing your child through the meal, as long as they finish their food within a reasonable duration.

2. Resist distractions

While mobile phones, television, video games, and the radio are a great source of entertainment, turn them off at mealtimes and do not allow them anywhere near the dining area. They are not members of your family. If possible delay answering your hand-phones for the duration of the meal. Instead, switch your attention to your child and other family members.


3. Keep conversations pleasant

Aim at having happy and relaxing conversations during mealtimes. Ensure that you include everyone in all conversations. This is a great opportunity for your family to share their experiences and understand each other a little more.

Avoid bringing up unpleasant subjects or meting out punishments during mealtimes, as you do not want your family to associate negative feelings with eating together.

4. Share the responsibility

Mealtimes do not have to start and stop at the dinner table. In fact, include aspects like food preparation and table setting as part of your mealtime routine and involve your child in the process. Let him contribute menu ideas, bring him grocery shopping, and have him set the table. Your child will feel proud and excited to eat meals that he has helped prepare.

Braving the traffic congestion to get home at peak hours for a family dinner may seem like a hassle. Passing up the chance to go for a drink with your colleagues in exchange for a quiet dinner at home may also irritate you. But keep in mind these small sacrifices that you make now are all well spent. You will find that in a few years time, you and your child will reap the rewards from your efforts.


More info on FAMILY MEALTIME here.






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Kecederaan Akibat Kepanasan (Heat-Related Injury)

oleh Bintu Rasyada A. Rahman

Cuaca panas dan tidak menentu yang melanda seluruh negara ketika ini merunsingkan semua. Di negeri-negeri sebelah utara, cuaca panas terik disusuli kemarau yang mengeringkan sungai-sungai dan juga sawah.


Sementara di Lembah Kelang pula, bahang panas tetap terasa sekali pun selepas hujan turun untuk seketika. Di kawasan Selatan dan Pantai Timur juga turut mengalami keadaan yang sama.



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Monsun Timur Laut

Menurut Jabatan Meteorologi Malaysia, negara kini berada dalam fasa terakhir Monsun Timur Laut yang mana cuaca lebih panas dan kering berbanding bulan Disember 2009 dan Januari 2010 lalu.

Secara perbandingan, suhu lebih tinggi pada Februari hingga April berbanding bulan lain. Suhu yang dicatatkan pada 1 hingga 23 Februari 2010 lalu menunjukkan antara 34oC hingga 36oC. Sedangkan purata suhu negara ini adalah sekitar 28oC hingga 33oC.


Rekod suhu paling tinggi pernah dicatatkan di negara ini pada 9 April 1998 di Chuping, Perlis ialah 40.1oC iaitu ketika fenomena El-Nino melanda. Sementara itu, suhu maksimum juga pernah dicatatkan di tempat yang sama, Chuping dan Pulau Langkawi pada 21 dan 26 Februari 1998 dengan suhu 38.6oC.

Kadar Hujan

Sepanjang tempoh 1 hingga 23 Februari 2010 lalu juga, bacaan di 26 daripada 35 stesen meteorologi di seluruh negara menunjukkan hujan turun kurang daripada paras sederhana, 4 stesen pula pada paras sederhana dan hanya 5 melebihi paras itu.

Kawasan yang menerima hujan rendah adalah Perlis, Kedah (termasuk Pulau Langkawi), Kelantan, Terengganu, Pahang, Negeri Sembilan dan Johor, Sabah (semua bahagian) dan Sarawak (Miri, Bintulu dan Limbang).

Heat-Related Injury

Terdapat tiga peringkat HRI berlaku iaitu:


1. Kejang akibat kepanasan (heat cramps)

* Sakit otot di bahagian abdomen, lengan dan kaki yang berlaku disebabkan oleh aktiviti berterusan.

* Badan tidak berpeluh ketika melakukan aktiviti berat yang berterusan menyebabkan anda terdedah kepada heat cramps.

* Perpeluhan melampau hingga menyebabkan garam dan cecair dalam badan kehabisan, menyebabkan paras garam rendah dalam otot.

* Heat cramps juga merupakan contoh lesu akibat kepanasan (heat exhaustion).


2. Lesu akibat panas (heat exhaustion)

* Bentuk ringan HRI yang boleh berlaku akibat beberapa hari terdedah kepada suhu tinggi dan tidak mendapat keseimbangan cecair dalam badan.

* Mereka yang berusia dan mempunyai tekanan darah tinggi serta berkerja atau bersukan di bawah terik mentari lebih terdedah kepada masalah ini.

* Tanda-tanda adalah berpeluh melampau, pucat, kejang otot, keletihan, lemah tubuh badan, pening-pening, sakit kepala, muntah, mabuk dan pengsan.

* Lain-lain simptom berkaitan - kulit sejuk dan lembap, denyutan jantung lemah atau laju, pernafasan lemah atau terlalu laju.

* Jika mengalami lesu akibat panas, sila ambil langkah ini : minum air kosong, jus buah-buahan atau minuman isotonik; rehat dalam kawasan pendingin hawa; mandi atau berendam dalam air; pakai pakaian nipis.


3. Strok panas (heat stroke)

Keadaan paling teruk bagi HRI. Biasanya disebabkan bersukan atau kerja berat di kawasan panas ditambah dengan cecair yang kurang dalam tubuh badan. Tanda-tanda mengalami heat stroke :

* Suhu badan terlalu tinggi (melebihi 40oC boleh menyebabkan pengsan)
* Kulit menjadi merah, panas dan kering (tiada peluh)
* Nadi kuat dan laju
* Kepala berdenyut-denyut
* Pening-pening, muntah, keliru, tidak sedar diri.

Kanak-kanak, orang tua, individu obes dan individu yang kurang berpeluh (akibat keturunan) berisiko tinggi mengalami masalah ini.

Bagi atlet yang mengalami keadaan ini di padang, tiba-tiba mereka hilang kawalan diri dan tidak memahami permainan. Atlet itu tidak sedar dia sedang mengalami keadaan strok panas, simptom hanya boleh dilihat oleh orang di sekelilingnya.

Rawatan strok panas - seandainya sukar untuk merendamkan mangsa dalam air sejuk gunakan kaedah ini :

# Mandikan mangsa dengan air sejuk
# Renjis air sejuk pada mangsa menggunakan pam air taman
# Span mangsa dengan air sejuk
# Letakkan beg ais pada leher, ketiak dan kawasan sulit
# Jika kelembapan rendah, balut mangsa dengan selimut basah dan sejuk dan kipas
# Jika mangsa sedar, beri dia minum air sejuk
# Pesakit perlu dibawa ke hospital untuk pemerhatian doktor sekali pun rawatan di padang berjaya.

Perhatikan suhu badan dan teruskan proses penyejukan hingga suhu badan menurun kepada 36oC atau 37oC (mangsa perlu dikeluarkan daripada air untuk menghalang penyejukan lampau apabila suhu stabil).


Lagi info tentang HEAT RELATED INJURY di sini.






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Sleep Talking (Somniloquy)

by Dr Lee Moon Keen

People do talk in their sleep – not every night though, but typically when the sleeper's mind is preoccupied with a tough problem. Sleep talking, or somniloquy, is one form of parasomnia, a group of sleep disorders which are characterised by abnormal behaviour and movements during sleep.




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REM Phase

In order to understand parasomnias, we need to understand 'dreaming sleep', technically known as rapid eye movement or REM sleep, named for the observation of continuous movements of the eyes during this stage.

In the REM phase, people are known to experience dreams. Normally, a form of total body paralysis called atonia prevents us from 'acting out' or 'speaking out' our dreams.

Most parasomnias are partial awakenings during the transition between wakefulness and sleep.


Talking Content

In sleep talking, the sleeper may speak out the dream content, but it can occur at any stage of sleep. Sleep talking is benign and actually rather common. It is thought to run in families. It is not unusual to hear a child babble or shout in fear when he's asleep late at night. This occurs in half of all children, between the ages of 3 and 10 years.

Less frequently, an adult is heard to be muttering incoherently in sleep. Sometimes the meaning is discernible, ranging from harmless chatter to more X-rated speech. People have been known to answer simple questions, but do not bet on their accuracy.

Sleep talking is usually brief and sporadic, with snippets of conversation lasting less than a minute. This may occur many times a night for some people.

All this involuntary talk can bring embarrassing results when deep dark secrets are voiced out. What is more, the dreamer is unable to recall anything the next day. The main sufferer of all the nocturnal goings-on is the bed partner.

Causes

Apart from stress, causes of sleep talking include high fever, some medications, mental health problems, and drug abuse.

Sleep talking can also occur in conjunction with sleepwalking, and rarely, nocturnal sleep-related eating disorder (NS-RED), a condition in which a person eats while asleep.


REM Sleep Behaviour Disorder (RBD)

More bizarre sleep disturbance is observed in REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD). REM sleep is not accompanied by muscle atonia, which results in the sleeper acting out the dream.

People have been observed to scream and shout, and to exhibit violent behaviours such as thrashing about, and even hitting their bed partner. They may roam around the house, with risk of falling out of windows or other accidents. Often, the actions resemble fighting off an attacker or racing to escape some danger – all common dream themes which we can identify with.

There is to date no record of anyone actually harming another person 'by accident', so you can't plead parasomnia in defence in a murder trial.

RBD has to be distinguished from a mental health problem and epilepsy attack.

Currently, RBD is the subject of intense interest because recent long term studies showed that a few cases of this fascinating condition subsequently go on to develop Parkinson's disease or dementia, leading to speculation that it may be an early indicator for neuro-ageing.

Unravelling the link between these conditions should throw some light on the processes involved in brain ageing.

Treatment

As for treatment, sleep talking in itself is a harmless condition and only requires avoidance of the underlying cause, be it medication or stress.


On the other hand, since RBD can be disruptive to the bed partner or even pose an injury risk, medical consultation is required. Referral to a sleep specialist may be advised. A detailed medical history will be established. Video recording of an episode is extremely useful in assessing the case. Sleep study (polysomnogram) will confirm the diagnosis.

RBD is treated by medications such as clonazepam and melatonin. A person with risk factors such as advanced age or family history should be followed up to monitor for Parkinson's disease and dementia.

Are you talking in your sleep?


More info on SLEEP TALKING here.






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Khasiat Mayonis Rawat Kecantikan

Mayonis menjadi antara bahan penting dalam penyediaan salad dan sandwich. Penggunaan bahan tersebut juga semakin diterima di kalangan masyarakat di negara ini. Mayonis juga semakin popular apabila bahan tersebut digabungkan dengan bahan tradisional menambah keenakan rasanya.


Bahan asas mayonis yang terdiri daripada telur dan perasa berasaskan minyak hakikatnya menawarkan kelebihan tersendiri untuk kesihatan dan kecantikan. Bukan itu saja, ia boleh digunakan sebagai bahan untuk membersihkan kekotoran.



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Pelembap Kulit

Mayonis kaya dengan bahan pelembap tersendiri berasaskan kepada kandungan minyak dan telur di dalamnya. Ia baik untuk kulit, malah mayonis sememangnya digunakan dalam beberapa jenis rawatan kulit.

Cuba sapu mayonis di permukaan kulit dan urut secara lembut. Selepas selesai bilas bahagian yang berkenaan. Kaedah ini dipercayai membantu mempercepatkan proses pelembapan kulit.


Perapi Rambut

Bahan pelembap yang terkandung dalam mayonis mampu meresap di bahagian bawah kulit. Ia juga berupaya menjadikan rambut sihat bersinar. Cuba gunakan mayonis sebagai bahan perapi untuk rambut. Lumur mayonis pada rambut sekurang-kurangnya sepuluh minit dan bilas.

Rawatan Kuku

APA kata cuba gunakan mayonis untuk mendapatkan kuku yang kuat dan sihat selain tampak natural.

Sapu sedikit mayonis pada kuku dan biarkan selama sepuluh minit. Cuci dan keringkan kuku. Amalkan selalu, kuku anda akan menjadi lebih kuat dan sihat.

Melembapkan Bahagian Siku, Lutut dan Kaki

Sapu mayonis di bahagian yang kasar dan kering terutama pada siku, lutut dan tumit kaki. Biarkan selama 10 minit dan selepas itu bersihkan menggunakan tuala lembap.


Mengurangkan Kesan Panahan Matahari

Selepas berjemur lama di bawah sinaran matahari, sapu sedikit mayonis pada kulit dan anda akan dapat rasa kesan kelegaan.

Mayonis juga mengandungi cuka yang membantu mengurangkan kesan kulit terbakar akibat sinaran terik cahaya matahari. Ditambah pula mayonis yang disimpan dalam sejuk apabila disapu pada kulit mampu menyejukkan kesan terbakar pada kulit.

Hapuskan Kesan Krayon Pada Perabut Kayu

Ambil sedikit mayonis dan sapukan pada kesan krayon. Biarkan selama 5 hingga 10 minit. Lap menggunakan kain lembap.

Hilangkan Kesan Tar Jalan Pada Kereta

Sapu mayonis pada kesan tar dan tunggu beberapa minit. Gunakan kain lembut untuk hilangkan kesan kotoran itu.


Lagi info tentang MAYONIS di sini.






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Travel During Pregnancy

by Dr Milton Lum

Most pregnant women can travel safely even to distant places. There are several factors that need to be considered when travel decisions are made. They include the obstetric and vaccination status of the woman, the mode of transport, medicines and travel insurance.


Other factors that need to be considered are the particular features of air travel and certain activities like diving which impose special physical demands on a pregnant woman's body.

It is advisable to discuss with the doctor before one makes any travel decisions. In addition to the above factors, the doctor will consider the health care facilities at the destination before advising on the benefits and risks of travel as well as recommend any preventive and therapeutic measures.



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Not To Travel

Women with certain obstetric and medical risk factors are usually advised not to travel to distant places.

The former includes history of miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy, premature labour, premature rupture of the membranes, high blood pressure or diabetes; history of or existing placental abnormalities; threatened miscarriage or vaginal bleeding in current pregnancy; incompetent cervix; multiple pregnancy and foetal growth abnormalities.

The latter includes history of thrombo-embolism, high blood pressure, diabetes, heart disease, asthma, kidney failure and chronic conditions which require frequent medical care.


Prior Departure

A number of issues have to be addressed prior to departure. There should be confirmation that the pregnancy is located inside the uterus and not outside (ectopic pregnancy) as the latter may rupture at any time causing internal bleeding, which is life-threatening.

One should check on the common disease conditions at the destination. This will enable the taking of necessary precautions. One should also check whether the health care facilities at the destination have the capability to deal with obstetric and medical problems.

For example, in the case of a pregnant woman in the third trimester, the health care facilities should be able to manage pregnancy complications including raised blood pressure, bleeding, caesarean sections, and premature or ill babies, and also have safe blood transfusion facilities.

One should discuss with the doctor whether antenatal care will be required during the time that one is travelling, and if so, who would be providing it. It is important that there is no missing of antenatal visits at specific times during the pregnancy.

The safest time to travel is during the second trimester (14 to 28 weeks). During this time, the pregnant woman usually feels her best and the likelihood of spontaneous miscarriage or premature labour is least. It is advisable to refrain from travelling abroad in the third trimester (28 to 40 weeks) because there are issues of access to medical care in the event obstetric or medical problems occur.

With Companion

It is advisable to travel with a companion who can assist should the need arise. The pregnant woman usually encounters common ailments like nausea and/or vomiting, heartburn, increased frequency of urination, constipation and cramps in the legs. These ailments are no different when travelling.

There are certain signs and symptoms that require immediate medical attention. These are vaginal bleeding, passage of tissue or clots, excessive vomiting, abdominal pain or contractions, rupture of the membranes, headaches, visual problems, excessive leg swelling or pain, diarrhoea, fever and decrease in foetal movements.


Vaccination

As about half of all pregnancies are unplanned, it is essential for women in the reproductive age group, particularly those who are not using any contraception, to ensure that their vaccination status is kept current in the event that there is a need to travel when an unplanned pregnancy occurs.

Advice should be sought from a doctor about the vaccines that are safe when given during pregnancy and those which are not. In general, it is preferable to get vaccinated before getting pregnant as it reduces considerably any risk to the foetus. Women who are given live vaccines (measles, mumps and rubella, yellow fever) should put off pregnancy for a month after receiving the vaccine because there is a theoretical risk of transmission of the virus to the foetus. However, small of studies of inadvertent immunisation of live vaccines to pregnant women did not report a link between the vaccines and poor pregnancy outcomes.


Air Travel

Air travel does not present special risks to a healthy pregnant woman or her foetus. However, it is not advisable for women with obstetric and/or medical risk factors to travel by air to distant places or during the third trimester. It is generally accepted that healthy women with a single pregnancy can travel by air up to 36 weeks. Different airlines have different policies.

Their guidelines permit a pregnant woman to travel by air depending on the previous obstetric history, duration of pregnancy and flying time. One should remember that on the flight home, the pregnancy would have advanced by the duration of the travel.

It is important to remember that the air crew are not midwives and the aeroplane does not have the facilities of a hospital. It would be prudent to check with the airline what is permissible when making the booking reservations. Some airlines require the completion of medical forms by the doctor. Most airlines do not permit their cabin crew and pilots to work on board a flight after 20 weeks of pregnancy.

Prior to boarding an aeroplane, all crew and passengers have to be screened by devices which use radiation, which is minimal. There have been no reports of adverse outcomes for babies born to mothers who were screened. If one is uncomfortable about the screening, one can request a hand search by a female security staff.

As the cabins of all aeroplanes are pressurised with a humidity of about 8%, pregnant women should drink plenty of fluids, especially on long flights, to avoid dehydration. Alcohol consumption is not advisable.

A seat belt has to be worn to prevent accidental trauma. As pregnant women are more prone to collection of blood in the veins of the legs, it is advisable to do exercises that exert a pumping action on the veins. The same would also apply to long road journeys.

The recommended exercises are usually found in the magazines on board the aeroplane. It would also be helpful to move about the cabin as much as possible.

Insurance

The usual health insurance policies that one has may or may not provide coverage during pregnancy and while abroad. One should check with the insurance company what is covered by the policy. If necessary, a supplementary or travel insurance policy should be obtained for the duration and a day or so prior to and after the travel dates.

The travel policies of different insurance companies vary. In addition, many of such policies do not provide cover for pregnancy-related problems, so it is important to clarify this prior to obtaining the policy. In general, insurance companies do not provide coverage in the last four weeks of pregnancy.

Other Tips

The pregnant traveller should, like all other travellers, be prepared for delays or queues particularly when travelling during festive seasons. The emotional fuse in the pregnant may be shorter than the non-pregnant.

Hence, it is essential to find some means of reducing any stress such as reading a book or listening to music.

Depending on the stage of pregnancy, one may be having morning sickness or is often hungry. Travel may also cause nausea and vomiting. It would be useful to consult the doctor and take some prescribed medicine to consume if there is travel sickness. It is important to take one's meals regularly whether travelling or not. Care must be exercised when eating food outside one's home. Cooked food is less likely to cause gastrointestinal problems than uncooked food.

As it may be difficult to do all the things as one could in the non-pregnant state, it would be helpful to plan out the travel activities. Frequent breaks will ensure that one gets sufficient rest and not get tired. It is important not to take any medicine without consulting a doctor or pharmacist.


More info on PREGNANCY here.






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Berkongsi Tuala Boleh Jangkit Ketuat/Kutil

Boleh dikatakan setiap daripada kita menghadapi masalah ketuat (atau kutil) di bahagian tubuh. Biasanya ketuat tersebut tidak mengganggu dan ada juga yang boleh hilang sendiri tanpa perlu dibuang menerusi pembedahan.




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Punca Ketuat

Ketuat juga boleh berlaku pada kanak-kanak. Untuk pengetahuan anda, ketuat berpunca dari sejenis jangkitan kuman pada kulit yang tergolong dalam kumpulan human papillomavirus (HPV).

Kuman ini boleh dijangkiti pada mana-mana bahagian tubuh, namun ia lebih serasi untuk timbul di bahagian yang lembap, sedikit panas atau boleh jadi juga di bahagian yang terguris atau luka seperti di kaki, tangan dan jari-jemari.

Ketuat ini biasanya tidak menimbulkan kesakitan melainkan jika ia tumbuh di bahagian tapak kaki atau bahagian tubuh yang selalu bergesel atau disentuh dengan kerap.

Cara Jangkitan

Bagaimana kanak-kanak boleh mendapat HPV? Cara mudah ialah dengan menyentuh barangan yang telah digunakan oleh orang yang mempunyai kuman HPV, sebagai contoh perkongsian penggunaan tuala atau apa saja.

Kanak-kanak yang mempunyai tabiat menggigit kuku lebih terdedah untuk jangkitan berbanding kanak-kanak yang tidak mempunyai tabiat tersebut.

Jenis-jenis Ketuat

Ketuat biasa sering ditemui di jari, tangan, lutut dan siku. Ketuat biasanya ini bersaiz kecil, keras pada sifatnya dan berwarna perang pudar. Permukaan ketuat biasa menyerupai kubis bunga dan ada bintik-bintik hitam kecil di dalamnya.

Ketuat rata bersaiz sekecil kepala pin. Jika berlaku pada kanak-kanak rasanya lebih lembut, warnanya pula boleh jadi merah jambu, perang lembut atau kuning. Kebanyakan kanak-kanak yang mengalami ketuat rata ini di bahagian wajah namun tidak mustahil ia juga boleh timbul di bahagian lengan, lutut dan tangan.

Ketuat plantar pula biasanya ditemui di tapak kaki dan jenis ini memang mendatangkan ketidakselesaan pada yang menanggungnya. Boleh diibaratkan umpama berjalan di atas batu-batu kecil. Adakalanya ketuat boleh tumbuh di kawasan genital namun ia lebih banyak berlaku di bahagian jari, kaki dan tangan.

Adakah Ketua Berbahaya?

Menyentuh ketuat orang lain tidak bermakna anda boleh berjangkit dengan mudah, namun virus yang menghasilkan ketuat boleh menyebabkan ia berpindah dengan mudah kepada orang terdekat dengan cara perkongsian penggunaan pakaian atau tuala.

Bahagian tubuh yang terguris atau luka juga lebih terdedah kepada penghasilan ketuat. Jika anda mempunyai tabiat mengorek ketuat juga boleh menyebabkan ia merebak ke bahagian lain pula.

Mengelakkan Ketuat

Walaupun tiada cara khusus untuk mengelakkan ketuat, namun amalan kebersihan seperti kerap membasuh tangan boleh membantu mengurangkan risiko jangkitan. Jika anak anda mengalami luka, gunakan sabun dan air untuk mencuci bahagian luka tersebut.

Menguruskan Ketuat

Ketuat biasanya tidak mengancam kesihatan, jadi ia tidak semestinya dibuang. Para doktor akan menyarankan ia dibuang jika mendatangkan sakit atau mudarat kepada pesakit.

Cara untuk membuangkan ada pelbagai termasuklah penggunaan krim khas, cryosurgery dan rawatan laser.

Cara potongan jarang digunakan doktor kerana akan mengakibatkan parut serta risiko ia akan tumbuh kembali.


Lagi info tentang KETUAT di sini.






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Dislocated Joints

by Dr Y.L.M

My mother fell down the other day and dislocated her hip. I’m not sure what dislocation means as opposed to fracture. Are they different?

Yes. A fracture is when your bone breaks. Dislocation is what happens when the ends of your bones at a joint are forced from their normal positions. There is no break.


Fractures and dislocations often occur together.

Dislocations may occur in your big joints, such as your hip, shoulder, knee, and elbow, or your smaller joints, such as that of your fingers, thumbs, and toes.


How will I know if I have a shoulder dislocation as opposed to a fracture?

Sometimes it can be difficult to ascertain. The shoulder is the most common joint to dislocate.

The shoulder joint is made out of the shoulder blade socket and the ball at your upper arm bone (humerus). There’s a cartilage rim that lines the socket that makes it deeper. The joint is supported at all sides by ligaments in a joint capsule, and the whole thing is covered by the muscle tendons of the rotator cuff.

The weakest point of the rotator cuff is in the lower front portion of the joint, which is very often the point of dislocation.



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Shoulders may dislocate if you wrench it upward and backward, thereby pulling the ball head of the humerus out of its socket.

This happens when you collide with another person (for example, when you are playing sports) or fall. The joint capsule, cartilage, and ligaments are usually torn when this happens.

There is a lot of pain when this occurs. But fractures also present with a lot of pain. If your joint is hanging at an odd angle, chances are it is dislocated.

I have heard of partial dislocations. What is that?

Partial dislocations are known as subluxations. This happens when the two joint surfaces have lost their usual contact.

Subluxations can be measured in percentages. Such as – 50% subluxation, which means the joint has lost 50% contact with its counterpart.

A full 100% loss of contact is a full dislocation.


What about hip dislocation?

The hip, like the shoulder joint, is also a ball and socket joint. The head of your thigh bone (femur) is shaped like a ball.

It fits nicely into the deep socket of the pelvis.

It actually takes a very great force to make your femur head pop out of its socket, such as a car accident or fall from a height. Hip dislocations usually come with fractures of the thigh and leg bones and pelvic bones.

In 90% of hip dislocation cases, the femur is pushed backwards from its socket rather than forwards, like the shoulder. This leaves your leg twisted towards the middle of your body.

Once you get a hip dislocation, you will be unable to move your leg. It is extremely painful, and if your nerves are involved, you can lose sensation in the affected leg.



Is a knee easily dislocated?

No, they are rare. When the bones of your lower leg – called the tibia and fibula – get dislocated from where they about against your femur, that is when a knee dislocation happens. It is also most often caused by car accidents and falls.

What is more common is kneecap dislocation, or patellar subluxation. This happens when your kneecap, the triangle-shaped bone covering your knee (called the patella) moves out of place, usually towards the outside of your leg.

Kneecap dislocation usually occurs in women when you make a sudden change in your direction while running.


What about fingers and toes?

Finger dislocation is quite common. It occurs most commonly in the middle knuckle of the little, ring, middle, or index fingers. This usually happens when a 'jamming' force is applied to the end of the finger, or when the finger is overextended, e.g. when you are playing basketball and the ball strikes the tip of your outstretched finger, or when you fall onto your outstretched hand.

A toe dislocation can leave your toe feeling numb, painful, and cold. This is usually caused by a direct blow on your toe, such as dropping a heavy object on the toe, or sports involving running or hiking with thin-toed shoes, or playing football barefoot.


What should I do about dislocations?

They are a medical emergency! Go to the hospital at once to have them treated. You should not attempt to treat them on your own. The initial treatment for a dislocation is R.I.C.E – Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation of the involved joint.

Then pain control can be given, and splints can be applied once the joint is manoeuvred (usually under anaesthesia) back to its place.


More info on DISLOCATED JOINTS here.






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Dahaga Petanda Kekurangan Air

"Mengantuknya! Setiap kali selepas makan tengah hari mesti mengantuk. Kadangkala rasa tidak larat hendak buka mata. Rasanya bukan sebab tidak cukup tidur sebab tiap-tiap malam aku tidur nyenyak," rungut seorang rakan yang beberapa kali tersengguk-sengguk depan komputer.

Sememangnya, mengantuk selepas makan bukan disebabkan kurang tidur, sebaliknya ia menandakan kita dahaga dan badan tidak cukup air. Ramai tersilap menafsirkan keperluan badan terhadap air dengan rasa lapar.




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Dahaga

Dahaga bukan petanda terbaik untuk memberitahu badan memerlukan air kerana sensitiviti terhadap dahaga semakin berkurang apabila umur meningkat, terutama pada orang tua. Badan kita hanya boleh mengawal keseimbangan air hingga satu peringkat tertentu.

Paras garam akan meningkat apabila simpanan air dalam badan berkurang. Otak akan mengesan perubahan keseimbangan ini dan memberi isyarat kepada buah pinggang untuk mengurangkan kehilangan air serta mencetuskan rasa dahaga.

Bagaimanapun, cetusan rasa dahaga ini berlaku lewat. Biasanya apabila kita berasa dahaga, badan sudah kehilangan kira-kira 2 cawan cecair badan. Kehilangan ini boleh menimbulkan pelbagai implikasi.


Unsur Penting

Air adalah unsur penting dalam badan. Badan lelaki membabitkan 65% air dan 55% bagi wanita. Air bertindak sebagai pelarut, penyejuk, pelincir dan agen pengangkut nutrien ke seluruh badan.

Kandungan air dalam badan setiap orang adalah berbeza mengikut kandungan lemak masing-masing. Secara umumnya, jumlah peratusan air dalam badan orang yang tidak banyak lemak adalah lebih tinggi. Kira-kira 70% berat otak, 75% berat jantung, 90% berat paru-paru dan 82% kandungan darah membabitkan air.

Badan mengalami kehilangan air sepanjang masa iaitu hampir 80% sehari, walaupun kita tidak aktif. Kehilangan ini berlaku melalui air kencing, najis, peluh dan pernafasan. Setiap kali menghembuskan nafas, kita kehilangan air dalam bentuk wap. Jika dikumpulkan, kita mungkin boleh dapat satu atau 2 gelas air yang hilang melalui pernafasan.

Ini sebabnya pakar kesihatan menyarankan kita minum sekurang-kurangnya 8 gelas atau satu liter air setiap hari. Sumber air bukan hanya daripada air minuman kerana ia juga ada dalam makanan, buah-buahan dan sayur-sayuran.

Berapa Banyak Air Diperlukan?

Secara umumnya setiap orang memerlukan sekurang-kurangnya 8 gelas air atau satu liter air sehari. Namun, jumlah ini berbeza antara setiap individu, aktiviti dilakukan dan cuaca tempat tinggal. Tentu saja jika kita melakukan senaman pada hari panas, kita kehilangan lebih banyak air melalui peluh.

Air yang keluar ini perlu diganti segera, sama ada ketika atau selepas bersenam, untuk mengelak masalah kekeringan. Kehilangan banyak air menyebabkan tekanan darah turun mendadak, bekalan oksigen ke otak menurun dan jika terlalu serius, ia boleh membawa maut.

Jika terlalu banyak minum, tidakkah akan berlaku keracunan air? Memang boleh, tetapi ia jarang berlaku. Sebenarnya sukar bagi orang sihat mengalami keracunan air. Ia biasanya berlaku pada bayi. Malah, individu yang alami masalah berat badan berlebihan perlu minum lebih banyak air, iaitu segelas bagi setiap 11 kilogram melebihi berat badan unggul.

Mereka yang bercita-cita mengurangkan berat badan juga digalakkan minum banyak air. Kekurangan air merendahkan kadar metabolisma dan badan tidak boleh memecah dan menggunakan lemak dengan berkesan. Akibatnya, proses menurunkan berat badan menjadi lebih sukar.

Masalah Jika Kurang Air

Masalah retensi air atau ketidakbolehan badan mengeluarkan air dari pundi kencing menjadi lebih buruk jika kita tidak mendapat cukup air. Ada kalanya masalah ini boleh diatasi dengan minum lebih banyak air untuk menggalakkan pembuangan air berlebihan.

Oleh kerana kebanyakan zat makanan larut dalam air, mungkin ada yang risau ia dibuang melalui air kencing. Jangan risau. Masalah ini tidak berlaku kerana buah pinggang kita mempunyai sistem penapisan yang cerdik. Hanya bahan tidak berguna dibuang. Semua khasiat makanan diserap ketika dalam usus dan dimasukkan ke dalam darah untuk diagihkan ke seluruh badan.

Sebenarnya ramai mengalami masalah kekurangan air tanpa disedari. Malah, ramai juga berkata tidak mahu kerap berulang ke tandas sebagai alasan untuk tidak minum banyak air. Tindakan ini sebenarnya meracun diri kerana tanpa air yang cukup, badan sukar mengeluarkan bahan toksik dan boleh berkumpul membentuk batu karang.

Tanpa air yang cukup juga, nutrien daripada makanan tidak dapat diagihkan dengan baik dan menyebabkan lebih banyak lemak terkumpul dalam badan. Bentuk dan saiz otot turut berubah. Paling malang, jika kekurangan air meningkatkan paras bahan toksik hingga membahayakan nyawa.



Lagi info tentang AIR :

Kurang Air Rosakkan Organ
Kualiti Air Bergantung Kepada Proses Penulenan

Water for Health






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