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Girl's First Period


by Dr. Nor Ashikin Mokhtar

Most women do not remember much about their first period, but whatever fragments of memory remain would probably include feelings of discomfort, a tinge of embarrassment, and a great deal of confusion.


Things haven't changed much over the generations. Girls today still experience the same emotions when they face puberty and their first menstrual period, although they may be exposed to more information on sex and reproduction through the media and pop culture.


Parents Challenge

The first period marks a girl's transition into womanhood. It is important for her to understand what menstruation means and what are its implications on her life – it is not just about buying sanitary pads but about being sexually responsible.

With children and teenagers becoming increasingly aware of their bodies, parents actually face a greater challenge in talking to them about puberty. Parents should not assume that their children will be better prepared for puberty just because the information is readily accessible through the TV, Internet, or their friends.



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Coming of Age

Throughout history, the age of the first period – medically referred to as 'menarche' – has become lower, as girls increasingly develop at a younger age.

Many factors in our culture and environment play a role in determining this. It is believed that improved nutrition, better environmental circumstances, and smaller families have brought the age of menarche lower. Cultural and genetic factors also come into play as girls from different races seem to develop at a different rate.

You can expect your daughter to get her first period when she is about 12 or 13 years old, roughly two-and-a-half years after her breasts start developing, and 4 to 6 months after her pubic and underarm hair begin growing.


Consult Doctor

However, this varies between individuals and there are girls who start menstruating as early as the age of 9, and others as late as 15 or 16. If your daughter starts menstruating too early or if she has not had a period past the age of 16, consult a doctor to find out what factors are causing this.

If a girl has started having periods but they are more than 3 months apart, she should be taken to a doctor for the appropriate evaluation.

Conversely, if during her menstrual flow, she has excessive bleeding and has to change pads more than every one to two hours and her menses last for more than 7 days, she should also be checked by her doctor.

Girls should be taught to mark their menses on a calendar so that problems can be more easily identified.


Reproductive Cycle

What does menstruation mean for your daughter? It is a sign that her body is preparing to take on the responsibility of having a child, when the time is right.

Menstruation is part of the reproductive cycle that the body goes through every month (the cycle varies, ranging from 21 to 40 days for different women).

Once a month, your daughter's ovaries will release a tiny egg. If this egg is fertilised by sperm, it will attach to the wall of her uterus and develop into a baby in 9 months' time.

Her body will naturally prepare for this : it will produce hormones that 'tell' her uterus walls to thicken with extra blood and tissue, to make the walls nice and cushiony for the fertilised egg.


But if no sperm enters her body, the egg will not be fertilised.

The egg will not attach to the wall of the uterus, so the uterus will discard the extra blood and tissue from its walls. This blood, tissue, and unfertilised egg comes out of the vagina as her monthly period.

How to Talk to Your Daughter

As a parent, it is your responsibility to talk to your daughter about the changes that she is going through, even if she finds it as embarrassing as you do.

The 'birds and the bees' talk should actually take place before your daughter gets her first period, preferably when the first signs of puberty – namely breast development – start to show.


Talking to your daughter about her period too early may be irrelevant for her, while approaching the subject too late will have passed the point of reassurance.

Unfortunately, this article isn't able to reveal any secrets about how to approach the subject or what to say to your daughter. It will be different for every parent, as it depends on your daughter's personality, your relationship with her, and how much information has she been exposed to.

Important Event

But it is good to share some insight on the thoughts and emotions that girls experience regarding this stage of their life, as it will help parents understand and approach the discussion from a broader perspective.

Studies of girls' responses to menarche have shown that it is a very important event in their lives that is experienced with intense emotions. Most girls have admitted that getting their first period can be stressful – however, if they are better prepared for this event, it can be more positive for them.


Research has found that most girls greet their first period with mixed feelings, including some degree of negativity. This could be because they were not sufficiently prepared to face it, for instance, they might not have been given any information on the 'raw', nuisance aspects of menstruation, so they did not know what to expect.

Showing girls a science textbook is not enough to prepare them, either emotionally or psychologically. Parents need to address the personal concerns of girls who are on the brink of adulthood, such as their reactions to the bodily changes.

It is easy to fixate on the biological and hygienic aspects of menstruation, and miss out on the social meaning, that is, their increasing maturity and responsibility.


Parent Guidance

Researchers have also hypothesised that girls may be confused by the mixed signals that they receive – on the one hand, we say that menstruation is a natural bodily occurrence and nothing to make a fuss about, but on the other hand, it is considered taboo to talk openly about having your period or carry around pads or tampons in an obvious manner.

If girls have to discover these relevations on their own, without any guidance or advice from parents, they are bound to feel some shame and perhaps even disgust towards their own bodies.

Teenagers today will get an abundance of information from their environment, but your role as a trusted confidante, who can impart wisdom based on your own experience, is irreplaceable.




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Gigi Rongak Akibat Rhinitis


oleh Hafizah Iszahanid

Ramai ibu bapa yang sering tertanya mengapakah gigi si kecil mula mereput dan rongak biarpun kerap memberus gigi? Jawapannya, ia tiada kaitan dengan tabiat menggosok gigi, sebaliknya berkait rapat dengan gejala rhinitis atau alahan seakan resdung yang dialaminya.


Namun, timbul persoalan lain - anak anda cuma berusia 3 tahun dan bukankah alahan sebegitu adalah masalah orang dewasa? Malah, gejala rhinitis atau radang lapisan hidung bukanlah asing bagi si kecil malah boleh dialami bayi seawal 6 bulan.


Gejala rhinitis adalah masalah radang pada laluan pernafasan yang lazimnya dikaitkan dengan hingus selain kegatalan hidung dan mata. Ia sangat biasa dialami kita tetapi tidak begitu dipedulikan kerana tahap ketahanan badan individu yang berbeza.

Bagi individu yang memiliki ketahanan tubuh yang tinggi, gejala rhinitis tidak mendatangkan sebarang masalah. Namun, sesetengah orang terganggu dengan gejala rhinitis menyebabkan fungsi hidung terganggu.



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Bernafas Melalui Mulut

Di kalangan kanak-kanak pula, apabila hidung tersumbat, mereka akan bernafas melalui mulut. Ia menyebabkan air liur yang mengandungi enzim menjadi kering. Justeru, kuman dengan mudahnya membiak dalam mulut dan menyebabkan gigi mereput.

Lama-kelamaan gigi mula rongak. Keadaan ini tidak dapat diatasi walaupun kanak-kanak itu kerap menggosok gigi.


Gejala rhinitis di kalangan kanak-kanak mudah dikesan. Kanak-kanak yang mengalaminya akan kerap demam dan menggaru hidungnya. Malah, hidungnya kerap tersumbat, berhingus, bersin dan jika tidur pada waktu malam dia kerap berdengkur.

Tidur Tidak Nyenyak

Kanak-kanak yang mengalami gejala rhinitis juga selalunya gagal tidur dengan nyenyak dan letih keesokan harinya. Justeru, langkah untuk mengelak gejala rhinitis bermula dengan memastikan anak anda tidur di atas katil.


Tidur di atas lantai menyebabkan anak-anak mudah terhidu habuk. Malah, pastikan pendingin hawa tidak dipasang dan elakkan juga mengambil makanan ringan. Pada masa sama, pastikan anak-anak mematuhi jadual pengambilan ubat-ubatan.

Ibu bapa juga diingatkan agar tidak memandang remeh masalah rhinitis kerana tanpa rawatan, alahan rhinitis mungkin boleh menjadi masalah yang lebih teruk seperti sinusitis, ketumbuhan atau polip dalam rongga hidung selain sakit kepala di bahagian depan serta muka.


Faktor Risiko

Keturunan
Alahan cenderung diwarisi daripada keluarga. Seperti juga lelah dan ekzema, gejala rhinitis juga diwarisi daripada keluarga.

Persekitaran
Ada kala gejala rhinitis berlaku sebagai respon kepada persekitaran. Terdedah kepada alergen (pencetus alahan) seperti debunga atau habuk tidak kiralah di dalam atau di luar rumah menyebabkan mereka mudah diserang gejala rhinitis.

Menyusu badan
Penyusuan eksklusif untuk 4 bulan pertama kehidupan bayi dipercayai mengurangkan risiko alahan.


Rawatan

* Menjauhkan alahan atau sumber alahan
* Pemberian ubat-ubatan
* Pengambilan air yang cukup selain mengehadkan penggunaan pendingin hawa. Ini kerana suhu yang sejuk dan kering juga menyebabkan hidung juga kekeringan.


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My Mother Has Ovarian Cancer


by Dr Y.L.M

My mother's abdomen has slowly gotten bigger over the past few months. At first, she thought she was getting fat. But when we insisted that she should go to the doctor, the doctor called us in separately and told us that she had ovarian cancer. We are very shocked and we don't know what to tell her. What is ovarian cancer?


The ovaries are the part of a woman's reproductive organs that generate the ovum (or eggs) that will be released into the uterus (womb) via the Fallopian tubes. The ovaries are also responsible for generating the female hormones – oestrogen and progesterone – which are responsible for a female's menstrual cycle and reproductive function.



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The ovaries only stop releasing eggs when a woman hits her menopause. It also manufactures much lower levels of female hormones at this time.

Ovarian cancer occurs when the cells of the ovary mutate and form – collectively – an unusual growth or a tumour. Tumours can be benign or malignant (cancerous). Ovarian cancer is obviously of the malignant variety.


Is this the same as an ovarian cyst? Because my friend also had the same swelling of the abdomen like my mother, only the doctor told her she had an ovarian cyst.

An ovarian cyst is a cyst (fluid-containing sac) that may arise from the surface of the ovary and within its tissue. A cyst usually contains fluid, but may contain solid tissue. A cyst can sometimes grow to very large proportions.

An ovarian cyst can be benign or malignant as well. So ovarian cancer can also arise from an ovarian cyst. Fortunately, most ovarian cysts are benign.


Back to the condition of my mother, the doctor told us that her cancer has spread. What does this mean?

Basically, most cancers can spread. By this spread, it is meant that the cancer can grow bigger and subsequently invade other organs around the ovaries, such as the Fallopian tubes and uterus.

Cancer cells can also shed or break off from the main ovarian tumour mass and attach themselves onto the surface of the organs around the ovary, or even on the abdomen walls.

These are called 'seeds' or 'implants'.


The cancer can also spread via the lymphatic system where the tissue fluids drain into, and then to the lymph nodes. It can also spread via the bloodstream into distant organs like the liver or lungs. This is called 'metastasis'.

How did my mother get ovarian cancer? My mother didn't smoke or do anything out of the norm.

Obesity is indeed a risk factor. If you have a mother or sister with ovarian cancer, you are definitely are at increased risk to get it. If you or one of your family members has had breast cancer, or uterine cancer (womb), or colorectal cancer, you are at higher risk for ovarian cancer too.


Older women who have had their menopause, especially those over age 55, are more at risk, as well as women who have never been pregnant. If after your menopause, you have taken more than 10 years of oestrogen replacement therapy (that is, oestrogen alone without the progesterone component), you are also at increased risk.

There have been studies that certain fertility drugs may have a link to ovarian cancer.

Is a distended abdomen the only sign of ovarian cancer?

But when ovarian cancer is very early, it usually does not cause any symptoms at all. But when the cancer grows, you may feel some pain in your abdomen, or back, or pelvic area, or even legs. Then you may have the sign of a distended abdomen.


As a result of tumour pressure on your surrounding organs, you may get nausea, indigestion, diarrhoea, or constipation, especially when the tumour presses on your stomach or guts. Or even the desire to urinate all the time – when the cancer presses on your bladder.

And because it is a cancer, you may feel tired easily.

Sometimes, you may get very heavy periods (if before menopause) or bleeding through the vagina after menopause.


Is there any hope for a cure?

If the ovarian cancer is at early stage without any spread, it can definitely be cured. Surgery is required to remove the tumour and the entire ovary as well as the Fallopian tubes and womb. The lymph nodes in the area are also removed.

Surgery is also done when the ovarian cancer has spread – in this case, it is called a debulking. Once there is spread and/or metastasis, radiotherapy and chemotherapy are required.


More info on OVARIAN CANCER here.






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Pelbagai Kegunaan Cuka


Cuka sering digunakan sebagai pembersih atau pencuci yang berkesan untuk menghapuskan bakteria berikutan paras asid yang terkandung di dalamnya. Membersih menggunakan cuka adalah kaedah bijak untuk mengelak penggunaan bahan kimia selain ia mesra alam dan menjimatkan.

* Buat sendiri bahan pencuci dengan mencampurkan 1/4 cawan soda bikarbonat, 1 sudu cecair pencuci dan cuka. Bersihkan permukaan dapur menggunakan bahan tersebut.


* Bersih dan harumkan tong sampah dengan campuran 1/2 cawan soda bikarbonat dan cuka. Biarkan selama 5 minit dan curahkan air panas.

* Bersihkan ketuhar gelombang dengan campuran 1/2 cawan cuka dan 1/2 cawan air. Didihkan campuran tersebut dalam ketuhar gelombang, memudahkan kekotoran yang melekat tanggal dan menghilangkan bau.

* Untuk perkakasan kaca yang kusam, rendam tisu dapur atau kain pengelap di dalam cuka, kemudian balut kertas atau kain tersebut pada perkakasan. Biarkan seketika sebelum dibilas sehingga bersih.

* Hilangkan kesan kekotoran pada teko dengan campuran 1/2 cawan cuka dan air, biarkan semalaman. Untuk mendapatkan kesan lebih drastik didihkan cuka dengan air di dalam teko tersebut beberapa minit. Biarkan sejuk dan bilas.


* Hilangkan kesan kopi pada cawan. Caranya gosok garam atau soda bikarbonat bersama cuka pada cawan tersebut dan bilas bersih.

* Hilangkan kesan hitam pada teko aluminium dengan didihkan campuran 1 cawan cuka dan 1 cawan air panas.

* Gunakan semburan cuka untuk elak semut di kawasan luar rumah terutama berhampiran jajaran pintu dan tingkap.


* Hilangkan bau akibat makanan lama dalam peti sejuk. Mula-mula bersihkan bahagian yang berkenaan dengan sabun dan air. Sembur di bahagian permulaan dengan cuka dan lap dengan kain. Isi soda bikarbonat dalam bekas dan letak di dalam peti sejuk. Biarkan beberapa hari.

* Untuk memudahkan kerja-kerja membersihkan perkakasan membakar, semburkan campuran cuka dan air di atas permukaan.

* Harumkan tandas anda dengan memasukkan 3 cawan cuka ke dalam mangkuk tandas kira-kira setengah jam, kemudian pam tandas.


* Untuk menjadikan mangkuk tandas bersinar, tuangkan secawan atau lebih cuka yang dicampur air, biarkan beberapa jam atau semalaman, bersihkan menggunakan berus tandas dan bilas.

* Tanda pada permaidani boleh dihilangkan dengan campiran 2 sudu cuka dan 1/4 cawan garam atau soda bikarbonat. Gosok bahan tersebut pada kesan kotoran dan keringkan.


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Diabetes Among Children on the Rise


by Lee Yuk Peng and Loh Foon Fong
24 July 2010, The Star


KUALA LUMPUR : More young people, some as young as seven, are suffering from Type 2 diabetes (T2D), a disease that generally hits those in their 50s.


Doctors say more primary school students have been diagnosed with T2D in the last decade, a fact that is alarming since the disease is usually linked to those much older.



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Bad Dietary

The doctors found that the young diabetics were usually obese, and their condition could be traced to eating too much unhealthy food and having a sedentary lifestyle.

They said the disease was not just about having excessive sugar in the blood system but could also affect the patient's vital organs like the heart, kidneys, nerves and eyes.


"The children's bad dietary habits of eating burgers, nuggets, fried chicken, fries and carbonated drinks are also contributing factors," Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre senior consultant paediatrician and paediatric endocrinologist Prof Dr Wu Loo Ling said, adding that long hours of homework, watching television and playing computer games added to the problem.


Faster Rate

"Cases of children and teenagers with diabetes are increasing at a faster rate," said Dr Wu. "Between 30% and 40% of children in Western countries are overweight and the problem of overweight Malaysian children is also on the rise."

Endocrinologist Dr Lim Soo San said T2D was more apparent in people aged between 18 and 29. "We even came across children who are below 10 years old and have T2D," Dr Lim said.

The Registry on Diabetes in Children and Adolescents (2006-2007) showed that 56% of the 42 T2D cases involved obese individuals.


Junk Food

Dr Lim said parents continued to feed their children with 'junk food' due to their lack of awareness of the disease.

Dietician Mary Easaw-John said apart from bad eating habits, irregular eating hours had also contributed to the rising trend of T2D among younger people.

"People tend to eat out instead of packing food from home nowadays. And fried food is common in eateries," said Easaw, who is Dietetics Food Services of the National Heart Institute senior manager.


Obese

The Third National Health and Morbidity Survey, conducted in 2006, showed that there was a high prevalence of overweight primary school children, and over 20% of them were obese.

Statistics pointed that Malaysia had the 4th highest number of diabetes cases in Asia, with 800,000 in 2007. The number is expected to jump to 1.3 million cases this year.

The recent survey also revealed that more than 43% of Malaysian adults were overweight or obese, twice the figure a decade ago.




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Lawak Kecing Manih (Kencing Manis)


Pada suatu hari di Hospital Kota Bharu, Kelantan, seorang lelaki berusia lingkungan 70-an sedang menunggu untuk mendapatkan rawatan. Di sebelahnya duduk seorang lelaki muda juga dengan tujuan yang sama.


Lelaki muda menyapa, "Pok cik ni sakit gapo?"



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"Kecing manih. Lamo doh."

Tiba-tiba kakitangan hospital kelihatan cemas dan mengusung masuk seorang pesakit yang tidak sedarkan diri. Pak cik tua tersebut bertanya orang muda di sebelahnya, "Tu bakpo pulok?"


"Kecemase (kecemasan)."

"Oohh... rupanya kecing mase lebih teruk dari kecing manih."




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Belly Fat


by Dr. Nor Ashikin Mokhtar

As if worrying about your hips and thighs your entire adult life wasn't bad enough, you've recently noticed that your belly is getting bigger as well. As a result, it's getting harder to button your jeans and an unsightly bulge appears above the top of your pants – sometimes unkindly referred to as the 'muffin top'.


You always thought that the dreaded 'beer belly' or 'spare tyre' only developed in men, so why is this happening to you now?


While it is true that men are more prone to developing an apple-shaped body – where the abdomen grows larger – women will also start to develop it after menopause. Looks aside, this accumulation of belly fat is bad for your health. So it's time to fight the battle of the bulge with a strict diet and exercise routine.

It will be tempting to just rush out and buy bigger clothes, but it will not solve your problem.



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Age, Hormones, and Genes

Belly fat increases as you get older, especially after menopause. This is because your body's metabolism will slow down with age, causing the amount of fat in your body to increase.

Unfortunately, women tend to gain more fat with age compared to men. Part of this may have to do with hormones. Menopause brings on hormonal changes that affect the way your body breaks down fat and where the fat is stored.


Menopause causes the distribution of body fat to change, so that is why you find less fat on your arms, legs, and hips, and more on your abdomen.

Don't blame it all on hormones though as genes may have something to do with it as well. Some women inherit a tendency to gain weight in their midsection because their mothers were like that, and their mother's mother before them.

Don't forget that as you get older, you are also physically slowing down. You become more sedentary and move a lot less. When you use less energy, your body stores it as fat.


It's The Fat Inside That Counts

Even if your weight doesn't seem to be increasing, it doesn't mean you can rest easy. Abdominal fat can increase without overall weight gain because the fat in other areas of your body is decreasing.

The mirror alone isn't a good gauge of belly fat either. The really 'bad' fat is not the 'love handles' that you can grab with your hands – it's the fat that you can't see that you should be worried about. This is known as the visceral fat, which is deeper within the abdomen and surrounds the abdominal organs. This type of fat is linked to higher risk of heart disease, breast cancer, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, gallbladder problems, high blood pressure, and colorectal cancer.

Scientists have discovered why this type of fat is so dangerous – it is because the abdominal fat cells are not just lying dormant, waiting to be used as energy. These cells are active and produce substances that can affect your health.

For instance, it has been found that some of these fat cells produce hormones that promote insulin resistance, increasing the risk of diabetes; other fat cells produce the oestrogen hormone after menopause, increasing the risk of breast cancer.


Measuring Your Midriff

As mentioned earlier, you may gain abdominal fat without gaining weight. So measurements of your weight or even your body mass index (BMI) are not accurate ways of monitoring your belly fat.

The simplest method to gauge your internal fat deposits is actually to just measure your waist. Waist measurement must be done correctly with a measuring tape – you cannot just use your pants measurement to assume that it reflects your girth.

Place the measuring tape directly on your skin (if you are wearing clothes, make sure it is a light layer of clothing). The measurement should be taken halfway between your lowest rib and the top of your hip bone, at about the level of your belly button. Breathe normally and do not suck in your stomach. Make sure the tape is firm, but do not pull it so tight that it squeezes your skin.


A reading of more than 80cm (for women) and more than 94cm (for men) means that there is an unhealthy build-up of abdominal fat in the body, which increases the risk of chronic diseases.

Belly Fat, Off!

So, what can you do to get rid of this awful belly fat? Fortunately, this type of fat can be burned off with a regular exercise routine and a healthy diet.

Cardio workouts are some of the best ways to lose the tummy, as they help you to burn fat calories.

Strength training is also very important, but sometimes overlooked by people who want to lose weight. Strength training with weights is effective in helping you lose belly fat because it helps you to build muscles, which burns more calories.


One of the best exercises is swimming, which burns calories as well as builds and tones muscles. Walking or jogging (outdoors or on a treadmill) also works. Remember, strolling is not exercising – you have to work up a sweat by increasing your speed or incline.

In your daily workout, start with stretching and weight training first, and save the cardio workouts for the last, to avoid injuries.

Diet Tips to Burn Belly Fat

There is no secret diet that can help you magically make that belly bulge vanish. The same wisdom for healthy living applies here – a balanced diet, with a variety of foods, is the key to maintaining a healthy waistline.

Here are some tips to help you practise healthy eating and really see the results.

Watch what you eat, literally. There are lots of hidden calories in our meals, which we do not notice, especially when we are eating out. You may have ordered a salad, but the rich, creamy dressing piles on more calories than expected. Ask for a salad with dressing on the side, or with a balsamic vinegar dressing that has fewer calories.


Read nutrition labels on the food items that you buy. Compare the amount of calories, sugars and fats on different products. Choose products that use polyunsaturated fats, instead of saturated fats. Once you start becoming aware of these labels, you will be able to make wiser choices.

Do not skip meals. Eat at fixed times and do not snack between meals. If you find yourself getting too hungry between meals, eat smaller and more frequent meals. But make sure that the amounts of food during each meal are less, or else you will be packing it on!

Drinking tea and coffee may seem harmless, but not when each cup is accompanied by sugar and cream/milk. Cream and two cubes of sugar with your coffee or tea is almost equivalent to a slice of chocolate cake! If you need to have that hot drink, cut down on your sugar and cream.


Eat more complex carbohydrates (like wholegrains, beans, lentils, brown rice and root vegetables), as they are broken down into glucose more slowly than simple carbohydrates and thus provide a gradual steady stream of energy throughout the day.

Fad diets are tempting, especially if you're trying to lose a lot of weight rapidly. But these diets are called 'fads' for a reason – they are only popular for a while because they don't work over the long-term!

Ultimately, it is willpower and discipline that will get you through a healthy diet and a strict exercise routine. At the other end, a slimmer you awaits!


More info on BELLY FAT here.






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Pemindahan Organ : Risiko Jangkitan Penyakit


oleh Hafizah Iszahanid
18 Julai 2010


KUALA LUMPUR : Hampir 1,000 rakyat Malaysia yang membeli dan melakukan pembedahan organ di China dan India berdepan risiko jangkitan penyakit seperti hepatitis B, radang hati, HIV selain komplikasi organ baru tidak berfungsi, sekali gus boleh membawa maut.

Keadaan ini berlaku disebabkan pengambilan ubat-ubatan anti-penolakan yang tidak betul selain tiada pemantauan rapi kesesuaian organ penerima dan penderma sebelum pembedahan dilakukan kerana urusan jualbeli didalangi sindiket.

Sindiket

Situasi itu lebih parah selepas China mengharamkan pemindahan organ daripada warga negara itu kepada rakyat asing sejak 2008, manakala India mengambil langkah sama pada 1994. Sebelum pengharaman itu, proses pemindahan organ dilakukan dalam bentuk 'hitam putih' bagi memudahkan rawatan susulan di negara asal.

Sejak 2000, seramai 856 rakyat negara ini memperoleh organ dari China, 64 dari India, 16 dari negara lain seperti Russia dan Australia manakala dua lagi tidak diketahui. Kebanyakan mereka membayar kepada sindiket antara RM70,000 hingga RM250,000 untuk satu buah pinggang.


Ketua Jabatan Nefrologi, Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL), Datuk Dr Ghazali Ahmad ketika mendedahkannya, berkata baru-baru ini pihaknya mengesan penerima organ dari sebuah negara luar menghidap hepatitis manakala dua lagi dijangkiti HIV.

Berikutan itu, beliau menasihatkan orang ramai berhati-hati kerana jika prosedur pembedahan organ didalangi sindiket, isu keselamatan dan kesesuaian organ yang dipindahkan tidak diambil berat.

"Di Malaysia, pemindahan organ dilakukan dengan piawaian dan pemantauan kesihatan yang sangat ketat. Ia dilakukan di hospital kerajaan seperti Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Malaya, Hospital Selayang selain beberapa hospital swasta," katanya kepada Berita Minggu.


Buah Pinggang

Difahamkan, rakyat Malaysia terpaksa membeli organ terutama buah pinggang di luar negara kerana kesukaran mendapatkannya dalam negara khususnya daripada penderma sukarela.

Sepanjang 2009, seramai 21,169 pesakit buah pinggang bergantung pada mesin dialisis dan daripada jumlah itu, kira-kira 6,000 berada dalam senarai menunggu mendapatkan buah pinggang baru.

Meskipun jumlah pengikrar untuk menderma organ sejak 1997 hingga Mei 2009, seramai 128,556 orang seperti direkodkan Pusat Sumber Transplan Nasional HKL, jumlah penderma sebenar cuma 14 orang setakat Mei 2009.


India dan China

Katanya, trend pesakit Malaysia terutama yang menghidap penyakit buah pinggang mendapatkan organ dari negara luar seperti India dan China sudah dikesan sejak 1990 berdasarkan statistik Pertubuhan Kesihatan Sedunia (WHO).

Ketika itu pesakit tertumpu di India sebelum beralih ke China sejak 1992, berikutan tindakan Kerajaan India mengharamkan pemerdagangan organ mengikut Akta Organ Manusia pada 1994.

Dr Ghazali berkata, India dan China tetap menjadi pilihan rakyat negara ini mendapatkan organ meskipun kedua-dua negara sudah mengharamkannya. Ini berdasarkan rekod Daftar Dialisis dan Transplan Malaysia yang merekodkan 109 pemindahan organ sepanjang 2009 tetapi hanya 63 dilakukan di Malaysia, manakala selebihnya di luar negara terutama di China dengan 38 kes.


Kesan Negatif

"Kegiatan sindiket jualan organ ini memberi kesan negatif kepada pesakit dan juga belanjawan sistem penjagaan kesihatan Malaysia keseluruhannya. Misalnya, apabila berlaku komplikasi seperti organ baru tidak berfungsi, mereka mendapatkan rawatan susulan di hospital kerajaan.

Tanpa rekod perubatan, kita sukar mengetahui keadaan sebenar pesakit apabila dia berdepan komplikasi terutama jika pesakit tidak bertindak balas dengan ubat anti-penolakan. Malah apabila berlaku jangkitan disebabkan penolakan, mereka memerlukan ubat khusus yang mencecah ribuan ringgit," katanya.

"Ada kes, hospital terpaksa menggunakan peruntukan hingga RM20,000 sebulan untuk rawatan susulan terhadap seorang pesakit saja, kerana komplikasi jangkitan disebabkan penolakan organ baru sedangkan jumlah itu boleh diagihkan kepada pesakit lain yang lebih memerlukan," katanya.


Lagi info tentang PEMINDAHAN ORGAN di sini.






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